Volumetric changes in the focal areas of seismic events corresponding to destress blasting

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scopus – master journals – JCR

ایمپکت فاکتور

۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص Quartile (چارک)

Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Volumetric changes in the focal areas of seismic events corresponding to destress blasting

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The typical development of total volumetric change in the focal  areas of seismic events, corresponding to destress blasting, is characterized as  an  explosive phase followed by  an  implosive phase and with alter- nating additional phases following on from that. In a few  cases, a non-typical development of volumetric change was identified, where the first phase was implosive and the second phase, explosive. This  devel- opment is mainly typical for  induced seismic events recorded during mining, not for  destress blasting. Seismic events were recorded during longwall mining in  the Czech part of  the  Upper Silesian Coal Basin, where  the  destress  blasting  technique  is   used  as   a   rockburst  prevention  active  measure. Kinematic source processes in  the focal  areas of selected seismic events were analyzed by  the seismic moment tensor inversion method, as  well as  by  studying geomechanical rock mass conditions at the localities of  the seismic events. The  main goal  of  the analysis was to attempt to identify the reasons for  non-typical development of  volumetric changes in  these cases. Volumetric changes were analyzed for  seismic events with energy greater than 104  J, recorded in  the period of  time from 1993 to 2009 (1109 events). 80% (891) of the recorded seismic events were induced seismic events that were registered during longwall mining and 20% (218) corresponded to destress blasting events. Research shows that the main reason for the non-typical development of volumetric changes in the focal  areas of seismic events is an association with destress blasting in the rock mass, which is very close to rock mass overstressing. The detonation of explosives in boreholes, which would dominate the first phase of volumetric changes, prob- ably obscured stress release in the rock mass, as manifested in the first implosion phase of the volumetric changes in  this case.

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  1. Introduction

Rockbursts in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin-USCB  (Fig. 1) have been a dangerous phenomenon for  a long  period of time [1].  The rockburst problem relates primarily to the existence of competent rocks in  the rock  mass and the irregular stress fields induced by long-term excavation. The occurrence of a critical stress field  leads to  brittle failure of not  only  the coal  but also  the adjacent rocks. Such  rockbursts are  usually the result of combined, long-term for- mations of  unfavourable stress conditions in  specific geological structures [1].  According to  their origins, two main types of rock- burst can  be distinguished in the Czech  part of the USCB: (1) rock- bursts with an  activation mechanism in  the seam (coalburst or seam rockburst), and (2) rockbursts with an activation mechanism in the overburden. While rockbursts in the coal  seam are  localised

and linked to  the stress state in  the coal  seam, rockbursts in  the overburden lead to  regional events caused by  instability in  the mined-out  heterogenic and anisotropic rock   mass [1].  Destress blasting is  used as  a  rockburst mitigation technique in  the case of the second type of rockburst.

Seismic events  corresponding  to  destress blasting as  well   as high energy induced seismic events (with energy levels more than

۱۰۴ J) were recorded during longwall mining between 1993 and

۲۰۰۹ (a  total of  ۱۱۰۹ events) and were analysed in  detail. 80% (891) of  recorded seismic events were induced seismic events registered during longwall mining and 20% (218) of the analysed events were seismic events corresponding to carrying out  destress blasting.  Based   on   analysis  of  the  development of  volumetric changes  in   focal   areas,  five   events were  identified with  non- typical development of volumetric changes and these are  the sub- ject  of  this paper. Two  events were selected for  presentation in detail. The typical development of volumetric changes in the focal areas  of  seismic  events  corresponding  to   destress  blasting  is characterised by an explosive phase followed by a phase of implo- sion  and then alternating phases of explosion and implosion after that (Fig. 2).  A few  cases were identified as  having a non-typical development of  volumetric changes, where the first   phase was implosion  which  had  been  followed  by   an   explosive phase (Fig.  ۲).  This  development is  mostly typical for  induced seismic events, recorded during mining but not  for destress blasting. These seismic events were recorded during longwall mining in the Czech part of  the USCB, where destress blasting techniques have been used as active rockburst measures for some time now [2–۶]. Kine- matic source processes in the focal  areas of selected seismic events were analyzed by  the seismic moment tensor (SMT)  inversion method, as  well  as  by  studying geomechanical rock  mass condi- tions at the localities of the seismic events. The  main goal  of this analysis was   to  attempt to  identify reasons for  the non-typical development of volumetric changes in these cases.

One of the methods developed to ensure mine safety which was used is seismic monitoring to analyse the geomechanical activity of the rock  mass. As such, non-destructive methods are  very  popular because of the large amount of information that can  be  gathered regarding   the   seismic  activity  taking   place   during   mining operations, such as  the number and energy levels of  tremors in the area. Seismic monitoring is a part of rockburst prevention in many mining regions with high level  of rockburst risk  [۷–۹]. Seis- mic moment tensor inversion (SMT) analysis as a part of evaluation of  seismic activity is  a  useful tool  for  determining focal  mecha-  nisms, especially the mine tremor focus [10–۱۴]. SMT analysis is used mainly in  global seismology in  evaluation of  earthquakes [15–۱۸]. Similar outputs of the evaluation of mining induced seis- mic  events correspond to  destress blasting have not   been pub- lished in the literature.

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