Use of virtual reality in underground roof fall hazard assessment and risk mitigation

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Use of virtual reality in underground roof fall hazard assessment and risk mitigation

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Use of virtual reality in underground roof fall hazard assessment and risk mitigation



Virtual reality (VR) simulations are  some of the alternative practice environments for  safety education.

Trainees gain experience under the most realistic conditions without being exposed to any real hazard.

Virtual reality also serves as  a tool to expedite the decision-making process where quick decisions and actions are  necessities for  a  safe operation. One  example of  such a  situation in  underground mines is the failure risks in  a tunnel face  after blasting. Ground support systems must be  installed based on  the stand-up time to ensure the safe access of personnel and equipment to the working area. Generally, a competent person inspects the area to identify risks and determines the required support systems. However, training of a competent person requires large amount of time and effort. This  study presents virtual reality simulations developed for  improving the assessment of  the roof  fall  hazards and taking necessary measures for  mitigating the risk  related to roof  fall.  The  virtual reality simulation involves decision-making tasks for a particular scenario in which participants can  experience creating a safe work- ing environment in a timely manner. First,  they are  asked to identify the potential hazard in a tunnel after blasting, namely, rock fall, wedge failure or groundwater inflow. If the hazard identification is successful, participants are  requested to install rock bolts as a safety measure by selecting the bolt pattern (e.g.  bolt length and spacing). Finally, participants  evaluate the roof  fall  hazard by  viewing displacements around the opening, before and after the support measures. This  study illustrates the benefits of  VR in  safety training as  well as  enhancing the decision-making process to enhance safety.

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  1. Introduction

Identification of hazards around a tunnel face  after blasting in mining or  tunneling operations is  a  prominent task to  mitigate potential hazards like  injuries, loss   of  life  and equipment, and downtimes. Hazard identification requires a competent person to investigate the area and determine whether or not  further ground support measures are  necessary, in addition to the ground support application by  design. The  hazard identification needs to  be  com- pleted in a limited time as the stand-up time of the underground opening restricts the decision-making process. Therefore, training employees in  roof  rock  fall  hazard identification and risk  mitiga- tion is beneficial in order to expedite the decision-making capabil- ities of  the responsible personnel and prevent incidents. Technological improvements in virtual reality (VR) technology pro- vide  a novel solution for training in hazardous working conditions without exposing trainee to  any  real  danger.

VR simulations have been in  use  for  several years for  training purposes in a variety of industries such as aviation, railroad, mili- tary, and healthcare. Recently, several others joined them to reach higher safety standards. For instance, fire  safety training is among those fields that started to  benefit from the potential of VR. Cha et al. developed a real-time dynamic data conversion methodology for smoke and flames in VR [1]. Xu et al. established a fire training simulator in  VR that requires participants to  assess the hazard based on  smoke levels and identify the safest evacuation path [2].  The  growing potential for  VR applications in  safety training and hazard assessment has  also  been investigated by the construc- tion industry. VR-based training improves construction safety by maintaining participant  attention  and preserving the  effects of training over   longer periods of  time than conventional training methods [3]. Significant number of accidents happening each year in  this industry indicates a  need for  innovative approaches in safety training  [۴].  Li  et al.  provided an  overview of  VR-based construction safety research, trends in state-of-the-art hazard assessment  and safety training tools, and future directions [5]. VR-based safety training  has   been implemented in  other  fields such as  oil and gas,  aviation, vehicle driving, chemical processing

and maintenance works [6–۹]. These applications showed that VR- based training offers a promising opportunity to develop problem- solving and decision-making skills.  Potential of VR has  started to be recognized by the mining industry in recent years and the safety- related training in  VR draws the attention of several researchers. Kizil and Joy described the benefits in use  of VR in minerals indus- try  and reported that the VR provides a significant opportunity to improve productivity and safety awareness [10].  However, as sta- ted   by  Tichon and  Burgess-Limerick, VR applications in  mining have not  become widespread, since these applications lack system- atic  evaluation, have poor quality design and small sample sizes [11].

The early applications of virtual reality-based training in mining industry used simulations displayed on  ۲D computer screens. The context of these simulations was  the education of trainees about the safety-related issues and to  train them to  use  specific equip- ment. These simulations include a hazard awareness training sim- ulator developed to prove the capabilities of  VR technology in mining industry, a  methodology to  model the ergonomic limita- tions of mining machinery, an  instruction and task-based VR sim- ulation for  personnel working around belt conveyors, and a  fire- safety training VR simulation to educate trainees for  evacuation routes in  a mine [12–۱۵]. However, screen displayed simulations provide very  limited immersion, which is essential to any  VR appli- cation designed to simulate real-world conditions. Introduction of head-mounted  displays (HMD)  and CAVE systems improved the immersion  of  virtual environments and raised more attention towards VR as a research tool  in many fields.

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