Toward Utilization of ground tire rubber and reclaimed pavement materials with asphalt Binder: Performance evaluation using essential work of fracture

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جزئیات بیشتر

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۲۰۲۱

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scopus – master journals – JCR

ایمپکت فاکتور

۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص Quartile (چارک)

Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

مدل مفهومی

ندارد

پرسشنامه

ندارد

متغیر

ندارد

رفرنس

دارد

قوانین استفاده

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Toward Utilization of ground tire rubber and reclaimed pavement materials with asphalt Binder: Performance evaluation using essential work of fracture


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Toward Utilization of ground tire rubber and reclaimed pavement materials with asphalt Binder: Performance evaluation using essential work of fracture

Abstract

Utilization of ground tire rubber (GTR) binder in combination  with reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) binder can provide added benefits in terms of material, cost and environmental saving, and hence a promising step toward sustainable construction of pavements. The present study utilized essential work of fracture (EWF) principal to evaluate performance of a GTR binder blended with two dif- ferent types of RAPs: RAP-A and RAP-S,  having different rheological properties. The GTR binder was mixed with different percentages (0%, 15%, 25% and 40% by weight of virgin binder) of RAP-A and RAP-S.  First, Superpave performance grade (PG) of different com- binations of asphalt binders was determined in the laboratory. Thereafter, the EWF of binders was determined using a newly developed double edge notch tension (DENT) test. Further, the data obtained from the DENT test were used to estimate critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). The results showed that addition  of RAP decreased fracture resistance of GTR binder. Addition of RAP-A resulted in a faster decrease in performance of GTR binder compared to RAP-S. It can be concluded that low percentage of RAP may be utilized with GTR binder. Further, analyses indicated that RAP sources and its quantity could have significant impact on per- formance of asphalt mixes.

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  1. Introduction

An increase in the number of waste tires from vehicles creates waste disposal problem and environmental  pollu- tion  [۱]. In order to mitigate this serious problem, ground tire rubber (GTR) produced from waste tires is a preferred modifier for asphalt to save cost and environment [2–۶].

The tire rubber is composed of natural rubber, synthetic rubber and carbon black. The natural rubber provides elas- tic properties, while synthetic rubber improves the thermal stability, and addition of carbon black enhances durability of binder  [۷]. Researchers  have  shown  that addition of GTR in asphalt improves toughness and elastic recovery of asphalt and enhances durability  of asphalt pavements [8–۱۱]. In addition, inclusion of GTR provides resistance to rutting, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking and aging [8–۱۱]. Similar  to waste tires, non-utilization  of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is wastage of materials and envi- ronmental hazard. Utilization of GTR along with RAP can provide added benefits in terms of saving in material cost

and environmental  benefits. The RAP has stiffer binder, and thus addition of RAP in a mix is expected to increase the rutting performance [12–۱۴]. However, a higher per- centage of RAP may reduce fatigue and low temperature cracking  potential  of asphalt  mixes. Since property  of RAP changes with its source, thus a binder recovered from various sources  may behave  differently.  The National Cooperative  Highway Research  Program Project 9–۱۲ report provides guidelines  for incorporating  RAP  in asphalt binder and mixes based on a scientific basis [15]. However, the report does not provide information on using RAP with GTR binder. Though  studies are reported on effects of RAP on virgin and PMB binders, so far limited work is available on GTR binder.

In the present study, it was found that viscosity of GTR

binder with 0, 15%, 25% and 40% RAP-S binder at 135  C

was measured to be 1175, 1158, 1267, and 1367 mPa-s,

respectively. Similarly, viscosity of GTR binder with addi-

tion of 15%, 25% and 40% RAP-A binder at 135  C was

found to be  ۱۲۱۷,  ۱۳۸۳,  and 1433 mPa-s,  respectively.

Thus, no significant  change in viscosity of GTR  binder

was observed after addition of RAP binder, and hence no

further need of high fuel consumption during production

of mixes. This observation motivated the authors to evalu-

ate performance of GTR binder and RAP binders. In this

study, a GTR binder was mixed with different percentages

(۰%, ۱۵%, ۲۵% and 40% by weight of virgin binder) of two

types of RAP binders recovered from reclaimed asphalt

mixes, one collected from urban highway (RAP-A) and

other obtained from rural highway (RAP-S). The prelimi-

nary and viscosity tests showed that binder extracted from

RAP-A was stiffer compared to binder from RAP-S. The

EWF of GTR binder with and without RAPs was mea-

sured  using a newly  developed  double edge  notch test

(DENT). The DENT test is based on EWF and can mea-

sure the total energy required to fracture asphalt binders.

The critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) value

obtained from the DENT test characterizes the strain toler-

ance behavior of asphalt binder in ductile state [12,16–۲۰].

A higher CTOD value is desired to have better fracture

resistance of a binder [21–۲۸]. In addition, change in Super-

pave performance grade (PG) of GTR binder was evalu-

ated after addition of RAP.  It is expected  that the

present study would be helpful  in understanding perfor-

mance of GTR binder containing RAP toward a sustain-

able development of road infrastructure.

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