The use of sewage sludge in the production of ceramic floor tiles

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جزئیات بیشتر

انتشار

۲۰۲۱

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نشریه الزویر

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scopus – master journals – JCR

ایمپکت فاکتور

۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص Quartile (چارک)

Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

مدل مفهومی

ندارد

پرسشنامه

ندارد

متغیر

ندارد

رفرنس

دارد

قوانین استفاده

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The use of sewage sludge in the production of ceramic floor tiles


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The use of sewage sludge in the production of ceramic floor tiles

Abstract

Scientists  proved  that  municipal  sewage sludge  contains  many  dangerous  pathogens, toxic  heavy  metals,  endocrine  disruptors, drains,  storm  water  runoff,  hospitals,  and  industrial plants.  Sewage sludge represents  an extremely high ecological hazard  to the environment. Due to the increasing amount  of sludge generated  from the wastewater  treatments plants a strong demand for environmentally and effective safe reuse has arisen. One potential  use of that  waste is its incor- poration in the production of ceramic tiles. The main aim of present work was to study the possi- bility of usage of this hazardous waste in floor ceramic tiles industry.  A dried  sludge waste was added  in percentages  from 5% up to 35% to a standard floor tile mix, molded,  pressed uniaxially at 30 MPa and then fired at temperatures reaching 1150  C for 15 min soaking time. The properties of both green and fired tiles were investigated as function  of percent waste added.  The vitrification parameters, which are linear firing shrinkage,  water absorption, apparent porosity,  and mechanical property,  were determined  and compared  with ISO standards. Fired samples of the proposed  mix- tures were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was possible to obtain  tiles that abided  by ISO standards for maximum  addition  of 7% sludge fired at 1150  C (for water absorp- tion < 10%), and 10% sludge or 5% sludge for tiles fired at 1150  C and 1100  C, respectively (for water  absorption > 10%),  which  are  recommended  for  both  their  economic  and  environmental benefits.

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  1. Introduction

Sanitary  landfills are  commonly  used for  disposal  of sewage sludge and  rapid  urbanization and  it is difficult  to  find any suitable  landfill sites so that  incineration  has  become  one of the few alternatives  available  for disposal sewage sludge [1].

In a comprehensive  review, Donatello and  Cheeseman  [۲] have enumerated actual and potential  uses of incinerated  sew- age sludge ash (ISSA). These included, among other uses, their inclusion in mixes in the brick, tile and paving industry,  man- ufacture  of light weight aggregate,  glass ceramics, and partial substitute  for cement, beside applications  related to their high phosphate content.

In the clay brick industry,  an early work was conducted  by Tay [3] who noticed  a slight regular  decrease  in compressive strength   following  addition   of  ISSA.  The  same  trend  was observed later by Trauner  [۴] although  the drop in compressive strength  on  adding  ۳۰%  ISSA  was spectacular.  It  was con- cluded that  the effect of using ISSA in clay bricks preparation depends  mainly on the chemical composition  of the waste, so that  no general trend  could be established [5]. A limited num- ber of studies addressed  the use of ISSA as substitute  for clay in the manufacture of ceramic  tiles. Jordan  et al. [6] investi- gated the substitution of clay by sewage sludge in different pro- portions  not exceeding 10% in a ceramic wall tile body. They could not  find any clear relation  between the values of linear contraction  and   the   percentage   of  sludge.   However,   the increase  in water  absorption with  the  increase  in the  sludge percentage was clear. On the other hand, the addition  of sludge gave rise to a decrease in the bending strength.  Gol [7] investi- gated the use of the marine sludge as additives in production of ceramic tiles. The results of his work indicated  that  blending marine  sludge  into  the  ceramic  powder  mixtures  in  the  ۲۰–۵۰%  range  was beneficial  for  tile production. On  the  other hand,  Baruzzo et al. [8] studied samples using not only dredg- ing spoils alone, but also mixtures with other  waste materials such as bottom  ashes from  an incinerator of municipal  solid waste, incinerated  sewage sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant  and steelworks slag. They concluded  that  the firing shrinkage was too high for the production of tiles. Also, Montero et al. [9] investigated the effect of the addition  of marble sludge and urban  sewage sludge in different proportions to clay in a ceramic  body.  They deduced  that  incorporation of these  residues  has  to  be  limited  due  to  increase  in  water absorption and decrease in the bending strength.

In the present work, sewage sludge was taken from the resi- due of a municipal  water  plant  located  in Eastern  Cairo  and added  in various  proportions to ceramic floor tile mixes in a contribution  to  limiting  their  harmful   environmental  effect and at the same time realizing a positive economic  benefit by decreasing the amount  of clay in the mixes

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