The use of sewage sludge in the production of ceramic floor tiles
|نوع نگارش مقاله||
scopus – master journals – JCR
۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰
۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱
۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||
Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
خرید محصول توسط کلیه کارت های شتاب امکان پذیر است و بلافاصله پس از خرید، لینک دانلود محصول در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت و هر گونه فروش در سایت های دیگر قابل پیگیری خواهد بود.
فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Scientists proved that municipal sewage sludge contains many dangerous pathogens, toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, drains, storm water runoff, hospitals, and industrial plants. Sewage sludge represents an extremely high ecological hazard to the environment. Due to the increasing amount of sludge generated from the wastewater treatments plants a strong demand for environmentally and effective safe reuse has arisen. One potential use of that waste is its incor- poration in the production of ceramic tiles. The main aim of present work was to study the possi- bility of usage of this hazardous waste in floor ceramic tiles industry. A dried sludge waste was added in percentages from 5% up to 35% to a standard floor tile mix, molded, pressed uniaxially at 30 MPa and then fired at temperatures reaching 1150 C for 15 min soaking time. The properties of both green and fired tiles were investigated as function of percent waste added. The vitrification parameters, which are linear firing shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, and mechanical property, were determined and compared with ISO standards. Fired samples of the proposed mix- tures were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was possible to obtain tiles that abided by ISO standards for maximum addition of 7% sludge fired at 1150 C (for water absorp- tion < 10%), and 10% sludge or 5% sludge for tiles fired at 1150 C and 1100 C, respectively (for water absorption > 10%), which are recommended for both their economic and environmental benefits.
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
Sanitary landfills are commonly used for disposal of sewage sludge and rapid urbanization and it is difficult to find any suitable landfill sites so that incineration has become one of the few alternatives available for disposal sewage sludge .
In a comprehensive review, Donatello and Cheeseman  have enumerated actual and potential uses of incinerated sew- age sludge ash (ISSA). These included, among other uses, their inclusion in mixes in the brick, tile and paving industry, man- ufacture of light weight aggregate, glass ceramics, and partial substitute for cement, beside applications related to their high phosphate content.
In the clay brick industry, an early work was conducted by Tay  who noticed a slight regular decrease in compressive strength following addition of ISSA. The same trend was observed later by Trauner  although the drop in compressive strength on adding ۳۰% ISSA was spectacular. It was con- cluded that the effect of using ISSA in clay bricks preparation depends mainly on the chemical composition of the waste, so that no general trend could be established . A limited num- ber of studies addressed the use of ISSA as substitute for clay in the manufacture of ceramic tiles. Jordan et al.  investi- gated the substitution of clay by sewage sludge in different pro- portions not exceeding 10% in a ceramic wall tile body. They could not find any clear relation between the values of linear contraction and the percentage of sludge. However, the increase in water absorption with the increase in the sludge percentage was clear. On the other hand, the addition of sludge gave rise to a decrease in the bending strength. Gol  investi- gated the use of the marine sludge as additives in production of ceramic tiles. The results of his work indicated that blending marine sludge into the ceramic powder mixtures in the ۲۰–۵۰% range was beneficial for tile production. On the other hand, Baruzzo et al.  studied samples using not only dredg- ing spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated sewage sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant and steelworks slag. They concluded that the firing shrinkage was too high for the production of tiles. Also, Montero et al.  investigated the effect of the addition of marble sludge and urban sewage sludge in different proportions to clay in a ceramic body. They deduced that incorporation of these residues has to be limited due to increase in water absorption and decrease in the bending strength.
In the present work, sewage sludge was taken from the resi- due of a municipal water plant located in Eastern Cairo and added in various proportions to ceramic floor tile mixes in a contribution to limiting their harmful environmental effect and at the same time realizing a positive economic benefit by decreasing the amount of clay in the mixes
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