The layers of history: New architecture interventions in castle ruins

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جزئیات بیشتر

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۲۰۲۱

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scopus – master journals – JCR

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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The layers of history: New architecture interventions in castle ruins


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The layers of history: New architecture interventions in castle ruins

Abstract

This paper aims to analyse new architectural works that were created within the ruins of castles and fortifications. The contribution addresses the question whether it is possible  to indi- cate common  features in these types  of objects, by studying  what changed and how it changed in the  complexes of historic ruins by introducing a new layer: a new form in their space. The analysis covers  eight complexes of castle ruins located in Europe, all being  important elements of local historical heritage, all preserved in their historical forms  as permanent ruins. Such places are characterised by high imageability, which is conducive to maintaining interest, despite political or ideological changes. The need to introduce new functions, which is connected with this inter- est, raises  questions related to preserving the  identity and authenticity of the place, while at the same  time  building  relationships with  modern architecture.

The research concerned examples from Europe, mostly  post-competition works.  Research and analysis have shown that all the  objects are characterised by well thought-out urban  solutions and carefully selected locations of new  buildings  within  the existing  historic ruins,  thereby helping maintain the  structural order  between the  existing  and  the  new  spatial forms. Interventions within the  castle ruins were  carried out using modern architectural language, using modern tech- niques  and solutions, with great attention to detail. They are  characterised by the  abstraction of new forms and the  creative reinterpretation of existing architectural elements and material solu- tions of the monuments. The consciously applied contrast of forms and materials means  that the historical heritage is being rediscovered, enriched with new, currently necessary functions. In all the  described works,  the  introduction of new spatial experiences within  existing  objects consti- tuted a significant value. The examples analysed show that the experience and  analysis  of the broadly  understood historical, urban  and  architectural context are  conducive to the creation of valuable architectural works.  The characteristics of these examples may contribute to a broader debate on the  dialogue between historical heritage and contemporary architecture.

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  1. Introduction

The  human  brain  loves  stories (Suzuki et al., 2018).  They surround  us,   shaping   our   sense   of  identity, offering a communication tool, and  helping  us better understand the world.  They educate, teach, entertain, expand and change perspectives, and  “engage human   beings  [.] and  shape their intellectual, emotional and  embodied lives”  (Teske,

۲۰۰۶).  Like music,  painting and  sculpture, design  and  ar- chitecture  are   the   non-verbal  methods  of   storytelling (Psarra, 2009; Lyu, 2019).  From a phenomenological point of view, architecture is a carrier of meanings and  content (historical,  educational,  symbolic)   through  the   way   of shaping   the   form,   space,  and   material  solutions used. Reading  and  interpreting mutual relationships deepen our experience related to  the  perception of architecture (Rasmussen, 1962; Norberg-Schultz, 1980).  E. Relph states that “the meanings of places may be rooted in the  physical setting  and   objects  and   activities,  but   they   are   not   a property of them e rather they  are  a property of human intentions and  experiences” (Relph,  ۱۹۷۶).

In recent decades, historic complexes of castle ruins and fortifications have  been gaining  more  and  more  interest, mainly  because people started  to  look  for  authenticity, aesthetic  stimuli, and  new  experiences  (Ginsberg, 2004; Huyssen,  ۲۰۰۶; Light and  Watson, 2016),  but  also  because mass culture, media  and entertainment have  been showing increasing activities related to  these topics. Many popular books,   movies   and   series   are   set   in  historical realities. Castles  “provide a  richness of  experience and  intensities that illustrate well  the   affective nature of  heritage en- counters” (Light and  Watson, 2016).  All of this  contributes to the  great popularity of this  type  of objects, and  thus  to their new  functional needs. In heritage tourism research, the   visitors’   experience  is  emphasized  (Kempiak, Hollywood,   Bolan,   McMahon-Beattie,  ۲۰۱۷;  Seyfi  et al.,

۲۰۲۰;   Di   Pietro,   Guglielmetti,  Mulazzani,    ۲۰۱۸).    Re- searchers  argue   that  implementing innovative ways   of experiencing heritage [.] has the  potential to attract new visitor    segments”  (Di  Pietro,   Guglielmetti,   Mulazzani, 2018).   For   example,  contemporary  architecture   intro- duced within  the  ruins  may  have  a  similar  effect on  the popularization of a tourist site, especially if it refers to the memory  of the  place (We˛cławowicz-Gyurkovich, ۲۰۱۰). The importance of contemporary architecture in marketing and the   process  of  reimagining  places  is  discussed,  among others, by Claire  Colomb  (Colomb,  ۲۰۱۱, ۲۰۱۲).  According to  Colomb,  place marketing “makes use  of  spatial meta- phors  and  of specific  architectural symbols  characterizing that  place [.],  place  marketing activities thus  interact with place making activities (architecture,  planning, urban design  and  urban  development)” (Colomb,  ۲۰۱۱).

The  word  ‘ruin’  is derived from  the  Latin  ‘ruina’  and means ‘destruction, fall’  (Kumaniecki, 1990),  the  meaning referring to  two  contexts: material constructions and  the manifestations of  human  activity and  aspects of  his exis- tence. Ruins have  no boundaries; they  function outside of time  (Nieszczerzewska, 2015). Historical  objects preserved as permanent ruins no longer  fulfil their original  functions, but   they   still   act   on   people  imagination.  They   evoke nostalgia for an earlier age  that had  not  yet  lost  its power

to imagine  other futures” (Huyssen,  ۲۰۰۶).  According to H. Bo¨hme, “ruin  is a sign of what  an  untouched building  was once, but  becomes a beauty, an excess  of meaning that is not  evident in the  semantics of the  past.“۱ Ruins show an uncertain balance of preserved form and decay, nature and history, memory  and the  present, something not to be seen in an intact monument or work of art  (Bo¨hme, 1989).

Castle  ruins  and  fortifications are  a particular example of architectural heritage. On the  European continent,  we can find quite a few of them: defensive buildings  with high walls  topped with  battlements, many  having  a character- istic  tower, built   mainly  in  the   Middle  Ages.  They  were fortified buildings  adapted for residential and defence functions  e a   symbol   of   the   owners’   power,  military strength and  social  status. Castles  are  seen  as “unique ex- pressions of  elite life,   regionally distinct  and  steeped  in local  symbolism”  (Kirk et al., 2020),  probably “the domi- nant   popular  impression”  of  the   Middle  Ages  (Coulson, 2004).    Motte-and-bailey  castles,   built    of   wood,    first appeared in England,  introduced by the  Normans, then in Europe  in the  ۱۰th  century. Over time, stone replaced the wood,  and  castle design  evolved  to  reflect the  progress of military art  and  the  current social  order. Crusader expedi- tions  to Middle Eastern and  Byzantine fortifications  signifi- cantly influenced the  appearance and  defensive system of European castles. In the  military architecture  of southern Europe,  mainly   in  Spain,   one   can   see   the   influence  of Muslim rule (Lepage, 2002). The basic defensive function of the  castle was  reflected in the  simplicity of their layout; solid  and  massive  walls;  and  pure  functionality. With the change  of  needs  and   the   appearance  of  gunpowder  in Europe  in the  ۱۴th  century, in the  late Middle Ages castle design  started to transform. The residential purpose began to  prevail over  defence, and  decorations for  stylistic pur- poses  appeared. Castles  represent our complicated past  e not just  the  “prestige and feudal glory”,  but  also the  times when “most  of the  population suffered misery and poverty” (Lepage, 2002).  Over  the   centuries, their fate had  been changing,  and   some   of  them e  as  a  result  of  human destructive activity or natural environmental processes e irreversibly fell into decay (Ginsberg, 2004). Their presence in the  landscape is associated with  the  geographical loca- tion, a typical characteristic of defensive buildings. In many cases, castle complexes are  not  only unique  in their loca- tions, but  are  important for the  communities as well,  be it for historical or emotional reasons.

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