The layers of history: New architecture interventions in castle ruins
|نوع نگارش مقاله||
scopus – master journals – JCR
۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰
۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱
۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||
Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
خرید محصول توسط کلیه کارت های شتاب امکان پذیر است و بلافاصله پس از خرید، لینک دانلود محصول در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت و هر گونه فروش در سایت های دیگر قابل پیگیری خواهد بود.
فهرست مطالب مقاله:
This paper aims to analyse new architectural works that were created within the ruins of castles and fortifications. The contribution addresses the question whether it is possible to indi- cate common features in these types of objects, by studying what changed and how it changed in the complexes of historic ruins by introducing a new layer: a new form in their space. The analysis covers eight complexes of castle ruins located in Europe, all being important elements of local historical heritage, all preserved in their historical forms as permanent ruins. Such places are characterised by high imageability, which is conducive to maintaining interest, despite political or ideological changes. The need to introduce new functions, which is connected with this inter- est, raises questions related to preserving the identity and authenticity of the place, while at the same time building relationships with modern architecture.
The research concerned examples from Europe, mostly post-competition works. Research and analysis have shown that all the objects are characterised by well thought-out urban solutions and carefully selected locations of new buildings within the existing historic ruins, thereby helping maintain the structural order between the existing and the new spatial forms. Interventions within the castle ruins were carried out using modern architectural language, using modern tech- niques and solutions, with great attention to detail. They are characterised by the abstraction of new forms and the creative reinterpretation of existing architectural elements and material solu- tions of the monuments. The consciously applied contrast of forms and materials means that the historical heritage is being rediscovered, enriched with new, currently necessary functions. In all the described works, the introduction of new spatial experiences within existing objects consti- tuted a significant value. The examples analysed show that the experience and analysis of the broadly understood historical, urban and architectural context are conducive to the creation of valuable architectural works. The characteristics of these examples may contribute to a broader debate on the dialogue between historical heritage and contemporary architecture.
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
The human brain loves stories (Suzuki et al., 2018). They surround us, shaping our sense of identity, offering a communication tool, and helping us better understand the world. They educate, teach, entertain, expand and change perspectives, and “engage human beings [.] and shape their intellectual, emotional and embodied lives” (Teske,
2006). Like music, painting and sculpture, design and ar- chitecture are the non-verbal methods of storytelling (Psarra, 2009; Lyu, 2019). From a phenomenological point of view, architecture is a carrier of meanings and content (historical, educational, symbolic) through the way of shaping the form, space, and material solutions used. Reading and interpreting mutual relationships deepen our experience related to the perception of architecture (Rasmussen, 1962; Norberg-Schultz, 1980). E. Relph states that “the meanings of places may be rooted in the physical setting and objects and activities, but they are not a property of them e rather they are a property of human intentions and experiences” (Relph, ۱۹۷۶).
In recent decades, historic complexes of castle ruins and fortifications have been gaining more and more interest, mainly because people started to look for authenticity, aesthetic stimuli, and new experiences (Ginsberg, 2004; Huyssen, ۲۰۰۶; Light and Watson, 2016), but also because mass culture, media and entertainment have been showing increasing activities related to these topics. Many popular books, movies and series are set in historical realities. Castles “provide a richness of experience and intensities that illustrate well the affective nature of heritage en- counters” (Light and Watson, 2016). All of this contributes to the great popularity of this type of objects, and thus to their new functional needs. In heritage tourism research, the visitors’ experience is emphasized (Kempiak, Hollywood, Bolan, McMahon-Beattie, ۲۰۱۷; Seyfi et al.,
2020; Di Pietro, Guglielmetti, Mulazzani, ۲۰۱۸). Re- searchers argue that implementing innovative ways of experiencing heritage [.] has the potential to attract new visitor segments” (Di Pietro, Guglielmetti, Mulazzani,
2018). For example, contemporary architecture intro- duced within the ruins may have a similar effect on the popularization of a tourist site, especially if it refers to the memory of the place (We˛cławowicz-Gyurkovich, ۲۰۱۰). The importance of contemporary architecture in marketing and the process of reimagining places is discussed, among others, by Claire Colomb (Colomb, ۲۰۱۱, ۲۰۱۲). According to Colomb, place marketing “makes use of spatial meta- phors and of specific architectural symbols characterizing that place [.], place marketing activities thus interact with place making activities (architecture, planning, urban design and urban development)” (Colomb, ۲۰۱۱).
The word ‘ruin’ is derived from the Latin ‘ruina’ and means ‘destruction, fall’ (Kumaniecki, 1990), the meaning referring to two contexts: material constructions and the manifestations of human activity and aspects of his exis- tence. Ruins have no boundaries; they function outside of time (Nieszczerzewska, 2015). Historical objects preserved as permanent ruins no longer fulfil their original functions, but they still act on people imagination. They evoke nostalgia for an earlier age that had not yet lost its power
to imagine other futures” (Huyssen, ۲۰۰۶). According to H. Bo¨hme, “ruin is a sign of what an untouched building was once, but becomes a beauty, an excess of meaning that is not evident in the semantics of the past.“۱ Ruins show an uncertain balance of preserved form and decay, nature and history, memory and the present, something not to be seen in an intact monument or work of art (Bo¨hme, 1989).
Castle ruins and fortifications are a particular example of architectural heritage. On the European continent, we can find quite a few of them: defensive buildings with high walls topped with battlements, many having a character- istic tower, built mainly in the Middle Ages. They were fortified buildings adapted for residential and defence functions e a symbol of the owners’ power, military strength and social status. Castles are seen as “unique ex- pressions of elite life, regionally distinct and steeped in local symbolism” (Kirk et al., 2020), probably “the domi- nant popular impression” of the Middle Ages (Coulson,
2004). Motte-and-bailey castles, built of wood, first appeared in England, introduced by the Normans, then in Europe in the ۱۰th century. Over time, stone replaced the wood, and castle design evolved to reflect the progress of military art and the current social order. Crusader expedi- tions to Middle Eastern and Byzantine fortifications signifi- cantly influenced the appearance and defensive system of European castles. In the military architecture of southern Europe, mainly in Spain, one can see the influence of Muslim rule (Lepage, 2002). The basic defensive function of the castle was reflected in the simplicity of their layout; solid and massive walls; and pure functionality. With the change of needs and the appearance of gunpowder in Europe in the ۱۴th century, in the late Middle Ages castle design started to transform. The residential purpose began to prevail over defence, and decorations for stylistic pur- poses appeared. Castles represent our complicated past e not just the “prestige and feudal glory”, but also the times when “most of the population suffered misery and poverty” (Lepage, 2002). Over the centuries, their fate had been changing, and some of them e as a result of human destructive activity or natural environmental processes e irreversibly fell into decay (Ginsberg, 2004). Their presence in the landscape is associated with the geographical loca- tion, a typical characteristic of defensive buildings. In many cases, castle complexes are not only unique in their loca- tions, but are important for the communities as well, be it for historical or emotional reasons.
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