Rheological properties of warm mix asphalt binders and warm mix asphalt binders containing polyphosphoric acid

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scopus – master journals – JCR

ایمپکت فاکتور

۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص Quartile (چارک)

Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Rheological properties of warm mix asphalt binders and warm mix asphalt binders containing polyphosphoric acid

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Rheological properties of warm mix asphalt binders and warm mix asphalt binders containing polyphosphoric acid


This paper presents the laboratory  investigation of properties of warm mix asphalt (WMA) binders and WMA binders containing polyphosphoric acid (PPA).Two types of warm mix additives were used to produce the WMA binders. Superpave tests were carried out on original and short-term aged binders through the rotational viscometer, the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and the bending beam rheometer (BBR). The results indicated that the WMA binders with different warm mix additives showed different viscosity values, however, the addition of PPA remarkably  increased the viscosity values of these two kinds of WMA binders used, in the present study, to a similar level. The WMA additive type and the PPA had significant  effects on the complex modulus (G*), phase angle (d) and G  = sin d regardless of the binders’ aging state (without aging or short-term aging). In addition, two WMA binders with different additive types showed significant differences on the creep stiffness and m-value, and the addition  of PPA degraded the low temperature rheological properties of the WMA binders.

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  1. Introduction

New technologies  have been  developed  due to the importance of environmental concerns in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt (HMA). Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is one of the new technologies with the objective of minimiz- ing CO2 emissions in the production and placement process of HMA  by reducing the temperatures at which these are mixed and compacted [1–۳].

WMA Technologies that allow lower HMA production temperatures may demonstrate positive impacts on pave-

ment performance. Because the lowered mixing  tempera- ture reduces oxidative  hardening  of asphalt  binder,  it should reduce  susceptibility  to cracking by improving pavement flexibility and longevity [3].

Reducing production (mixing) and paving (compaction) temperatures by using WMA in place of HMA yields ben- eficial environmental  effects [3]:

 Reduced emissions and odors from plants;  Reduced smoke; and Improved working conditions at the paving site.

WMA  can be  produced  with organic additives  and chemical additives or through  the foaming  technologies (water-bearing additives or water-based  processes)  [۴]. By now, considerable research on WMA has been conducted in many countries   [۵–۱۱]. The application  of organic  additives produces a decrease in asphalt viscosity when the mixing and placement temperatures are above the melting point of the wax, while the chemical additives reduce the surface tension of the asphalt binder without modifying- the rheological properties [12,13]. The foaming technolo- gies are based on the injection of small amounts of water along with the liquid asphalt binder during the mixing pro- cess which in-turn causes the asphalt binder to expand in volume and foam at a given temperature. The foaming pro- cess helps the liquid  coat the aggregate at reduced temper- atures  [۱۲]. In this study, WMA  binders  were produced with one type of chemical additive and one type of organic additive.

The considerably  lower cost of polyphosphoric  acid (PPA) compared with polymer modifiers has made PPA modification a popular choice for pavement applications. The PPA allows to significantly  harden bitumen  in an easily controllable  way. PPA-modified  asphalt binders could increase early resistance of the pavement to rutting by increasing  initial stiffness  and may extend  the  in- service  life of  the  pavement  by improving the  low- temperature  flow properties.  These improved  properties may result in both reduced fatigue and low temperature cracking  [۱۴–۱۶]. Edwards  et al. observed  that adding PPA especially to a non-waxy bitumen showed consider- able positive effects on the rheological behavior at higher and medium temperatures and little effect at low tempera- tures [17,18]. Some researchers  even reported  that addition of 1% PPA by weight of asphalt binder improves the high- temperature performance by approximately  ۱۰  C and the low-temperature   performance   by approximately    ۲  C [19,20].  Although the properties  of WAM  binders and PPA modified binders were separately investigated in many previous studies, not many studies looked into the proper- ties of WMA containing PPA.

Hence, the main objective of this study was to experi- mentally  investigate the effect of PPA on WMA binders with different WMA  additives. In this study, the WMA binders  were produced  with two different warm asphalt additives. The viscosity properties for the binders in the original  state, the high temperature rheological properties in the original  state and after rolling thin film oven (RTFO) short-term aging state, and the low temperature properties for the binders  after RTFO  procedures  were evaluated. Fig. 1 shows a flow chart of the experimental design used in this study.

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