Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete flat plates with opening adjacent to column under eccentric punching loads

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete flat plates with opening adjacent to column under eccentric punching loads


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Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete flat plates with opening adjacent to column under eccentric punching loads

Abstract

Abstract    Nonlinear finite element analyses were performed on interior slab-column connections to investigate  the  effects  on  the  punching   strength   of  flat  slabs.  A  total  of  twenty-seven  three- dimensional finite element models were constructed to represent large-scale flat plate slabs (2000

۲۰۰۰    ۱۵۵ mm)  subjected  to  concentric  and  eccentric  punching  loads.  The  main  parameters in this study were the eccentricity  of the load,  the opening  size, the location  of the opening  relative to  the direction  of the transfer  moment,  and  the configuration of the reinforcement  adjacent  to the  opening  that  is used  to  compensate  the  cutting  bars.  The  dimensions  and  reinforcement  of the slab and column were kept constant.  Predictions  of the numerical  models were in good agree- ment with experimental  results published in the literature  for slab column connections  subjected to concentric loading. The numerical investigation  showed that the presence of an opening adjacent to a column in a specimen subject to concentric  loads could cause a significant reduction  in the ulti- mate  shear capacity  which increases with the increase in the size of the opening.  Specimens with

۲۵۰     ۲۵۰-mm size openings indicated  a reduction  of 35% in their ultimate  shear strength  capacity while specimens with 250     ۴۵۰-mm size openings indicated a reduction  of 45%. Specimens without openings  subjected  to load eccentricities of 112.5 and  ۲۲۵ mm resulted  in a reduction  in the load capacity  of 18 and  ۲۸%,  respectively.  It  was found  that  providing  continuous bars  adjacent  to the opening to compensate the cutting areas of reinforcement  could result in a considerable improve- ment  in the serviceability  of the slab represented  by an increase the stiffness of the slab-column connection  and no significant effect on the punching capacity for the case of concentric loads. Finite element  analyses  performed  are  in  good  agreement  with  provisions  in  the  building  code  (e.g., ACI-318) for the case when the opening is located parallel to the direction of the principal moment and provide conservative values when the opening is in the upward  side of the bending moment.

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  1. Introduction

Moment  transfer  from the slab to the column are always pre- sent in flat slabs due to the unsymmetrical  nature  of the load- ing, unequal  spans  and  boundary conditions,  application of

lateral  loads, temperature variations  in the material,  differen- tial  shrinkage  between  two  slabs,  and  development  of creep conditions. The presence of moment reduces the punching resistance of the flat slab. Furthermore, the presence of open- ings near the column to accommodate the service utilities may cause further  reduction  in the punching  shear capacity  of the slab   connection   and   increase   the   likelihood   of  punching failure.

Over the  past  hundred  years  only  a moderate  amount  of research has been conducted  on punching shear strength of flat reinforced concrete slabs with openings near columns, in com- parison  with  other  subject  matters  in structural  engineering. This  is reflected  in  the  design  manuals  (e.g.,  building  code requirements for structural concrete, ACI-318) that cover these structural systems using predictions  that have been widely rec- ognized as conservative in nature  compared  with experimental results [4–۶,۱۱,۱۶].

An experimental  program  to gather  the necessary  data  to perform  a comprehensive  parametric  study  on  the  punching shear  failure  behavior  for  flat  slabs  is generally  costly  and requires  a significant  amount  of time to conduct  an extensive number  of experimental  tests,  which  makes  it  unaffordable. Therefore,  the  punching  shear  failure  behavior  for  flat  slabs has   been   extensively   investigated    using   numerical    finite element  analysis  [۸,۱۲,۱۳,۱۵].  The  success  of  these  studies and  the  high  correlation between  the  numerical  and  experi- mental  data  has resulted  in the opportunity to investigate  in more detail the slab-column  connections  with openings under diverse loading  conditions  through  parametric  studies.

The purpose  of this work is to present results from a three- dimensional  numerical  analysis of reinforced  concrete interior column/slab  connections  modeled using the software ATENA 3D version 4.3.4 [2], to study the punching  failure behavior  of flat slabs when subjected to diverse conditions such as the pres- ence of an opening, diverse sizes and locations of the openings relative  to  the transfer  moment,  eccentric  ratios,  and  diverse reinforcement  configurations around the openings.  Numerical results  were also  validated  using the  experimental  work  and compared  with  the  values  estimated  using the  building  code requirements  for structural concrete  in ACI-318 [1].

Research significance This  research  provides  analytical  data  on  the  effects on  the punching resistance of reinforced concrete flat slabs when pro- viding an  opening  adjacent  to  one side of a nonsymmetrical column subjected  to concentric  and eccentric punching  loads. The conclusions from this investigation  are useful to designers in recognize the  implication  of providing  opening  of diverse sizes  adjacent   to  columns  subjected  to  loading  conditions. The   data   collected   could   be   used   for   enhancing   design hypotheses  and  available  design  models  and  for  improving the  detailing  standards about  the  openings  when introduced near columns.

Detail of slab geometry and reinforcement The finite element model was developed to simulate the speci- men tested and  published  by [14]. The experimental  program consisted  on a full-scale model  of a slab-column  connection. The boundaries of the slab were selected at the position  of the line of contra-flexure.  The slab dimensions  were 2000     ۲۰۰۰  ۱۵۵mm with a square  column 225    ۲۲۵ mm. The slab had

۱۵ mm clear cover on  the top  and  bottom  of reinforcement. The small column size was selected to ensure the punching fail- ure. The support  was considered as a simple support  during the testing  and  the  specimens  were subjected  only  to  concentric loads.  The test setup  and  loading  arrangement are shown  in Fig.  ۱a.  The  specimen  was  inversely  placed.  The  analytical model was created to represent the test setup and loading condi- tions. All the slabs had similar reinforcement layouts, with rein- forcement  in  both  the  tension  and  compression   sides.  The flexure reinforcement  ratio  was 1.40%  while the compression ratio was 0.36%. The reinforcement details are shown in Fig. 1b.

The  numerical  study  was performed  in two stages,  in the first  stage,  the  accuracy  of the  numerical  model  was investi- gated by developing three FE models to simulate three experimental specimens (NS1, HS1, and HS2) with various concrete strengths as tested by [14]. In the second stage, a para- metric  study  was performed  using a total  of 27 models.

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