Multivariate analysis of subjective evaluation of indoor lighting environment

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

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۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Multivariate analysis of subjective evaluation of indoor lighting environment

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Multivariate analysis of subjective evaluation of indoor lighting environment


Though subjective feelings affected by lighting  have  been studied a lot,  multivar- iate experimental studies are lacking in this research field.  Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to investigate the  influence of illuminance, correlated color  temperature (CCT) and illuminance uniformity on satisfaction in this study. A series  of subject experiments were  carried out and polynomial regression models  of luminous  satisfaction for different activ- ity scenarios were  generated. Illuminance and CCT affected the  satisfaction significantly in vi- sual  task  scenarios, and  the  effect of them was independent with  each  other, which  was demonstrated by the  regression model  (R2  Z 0.89).  The variation of luminous  satisfaction in general activity scenarios cannot be fully explained by the  three investigated factors. The re- sults contributed to the  knowledge of multivariate analysis  of luminous  environment and indi- cated that much  could  be expected referring to the  application of CCRD in this  field.

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  1. Introduction

For people in modern society, most of their time  is spent in buildings. Occupants’ well-being is greatly affected by all kinds  of  indoor  environmental factors.  (He  et al., 2019; Xiong2019; Zhang et al., 2019; Shen et al., 2020; Wu et al.,2020). Lighting plays a key role in affecting people’s mood, health, sleep, work  productivity, etc., in both  visual  and non-image pathway (McCloughan et al., 1999; Ku¨ller et al., 2006; Van  Bommel,  ۲۰۰۶; Lan et al., 2017; Castilla  et al.,2018;  Lan  et al., 2018).   For  a  long  time,  considerable research  has   been  conducted to   explore  the   effect  of various  luminous  factors and  pursue a  more  comfortable and  healthier indoor  lighting  design.

Among all  the  single  factor  studies,  illuminance gains lots  of attention. An illuminance of 500 lux for  the  desk- based tasks  was recommended by the  most existing  interior lighting   design  guides. Some  occupant surveys  indicated that lower  than  ۵۰۰ lux was  satisfying while  other studies suggested higher  illuminance up to more  than  ۲۰۰۰ lux was preferred (Laurentin et  al.,  ۱۹۹۸; Jusle’n, Wouters   and Tenner, 2005).  It can  be noted that preferences for illumi- nance vary widely between activities (Veitch, 2001) and the lighting  design  guide  lists  stricter illuminance requirement for  visual  tasks  such  as  reading and  writing  than  general activities such as chatting and relaxing. (Ministry of Housing and  Urban-Rural Development of the  People’s Republic  of China,  ۲۰۱۳).  Some  literature was  concerned about the effect of CCT. Similar  with  illuminance, some  researchers suggested different  color   temperature  for   working   and relaxing.  Park,   Chang,   Jeong   &  Choi  (۲۰۱۰)  found   that 3000 K was preferred for resting while 5000 K was preferred for  reading in the  bedroom and  the  living room.  Manav’s study (2007) indicated that 2700 K was suitable for relaxing, compared to 4000 K. In addition to light intensity and color property,  light   distribution  is  another important aspect affecting lighting  perception. The  research on  uniformity was  rare  but  worth  noting. Slater  and  Boyce (1990) inves- tigated the  effect of  desk  uniformity on  satisfaction and found  that illuminance uniformity (minimum/maximum) of at least 0.7 was possible  to be desirable for various tasks. It was  suggested that higher  uniformity would  be  preferred (Muramatsu and Nakamura, 2002). Loe et al. (1994) pointed out  that an even  illumination may not  be satisfactory. The question came   that  whether a  median  uniformity exists which makes  the  greatest improvement of satisfaction, but it lacked discussion  (Newsham  et al., 2003).There   is  some  research  investigating the   influence of two factors on subjective evaluation. Kruithof (1941) determined the  combined effect of  illuminance and  CCT on  satisfaction, that high  illuminance together  with  high

CCT,   low  illuminance  with   low  CCT are   the   preferred combination.  But  it   was   argued  by  some   articles that Kruithof’s   findings  lack   information  and   have   not   been verified  (Noguchi and  Sakaguchi, 1999; Candas  and  Dufour, 2005).  Fotios  (۲۰۱۷)  concluded from  literatures that  only low   illuminance  was   suggested  avoiding   and   CCT was negligible considering luminous  satisfaction. Fotios  (۲۰۱۷) pointed out  that the  main  causes for  the  conflicting find- ings among  Kruithof  studies were  the  imprecise specifica- tion  of  the  SPD and  varied  adaptation time. In addition, category rating used  in most  Kruithof  studies led  to  ques- tions such as how subjects understand the  item being rated. To gain internal validity, a null condition or a parallel pro- cedure can be included. Wang et al. (2017) pointed out that scenario was important but  not  taken into  consideration in some  studies on  the  effect of  CCT and  illuminance.  Few papers  explored the   combined effect  of  three or  more factors on luminous  satisfaction. Sun et al.  (۲۰۱۹) investi- gated illuminance, CCT and  illuminance  uniformity using orthogonal experiments and  demonstrated that high  illu- minance together with  high uniformity and  high or median CCT was optimal for working.

Compared to  the  studies with  a single  factor, multivar- iate  research  provided more   comprehensive  knowledge about  each   factor  especially when   interactions  existed between investigated variables. Whereas the  experimental study  on more  factors costs  much  more  effort and  compli- cates the  operation, which  may  be  the  crucial  reason for the  lack of luminous  research investigating more  than  two parameters. Therefore, an attempt has  been made in this work to solve the  multivariate problem with respect to the effect of  illuminance, CCT and  illuminance uniformity on luminous   satisfaction  using  central composite rotatable design.

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