Modification and application of axle load conversion formula to determine traffic volume in pavement design

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

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۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Modification and application of axle load conversion formula to determine traffic volume in pavement design

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Modification and application of axle load conversion formula to determine traffic volume in pavement design


The determination of traffic volume in asphalt pavement design has not considered the effects of seasonal variability on vehicle axle loads in China. By analyzing  the effects of seasonal variation on the axle loads, formulas for the conversion of modified axle load to traffic volume have been derived and presented, in accordance with specifications in China. This study includes the following: derivation of formulas for converting modified axle loads to traffic volume, classification of 3 different seasons, determination of seasonal distribu- tion and influencing coefficients, and application  of modified axle load conversion formulas, among others. By comparison of results between modified and unmodified formulas applied in a sample asphalt pavement design in Harbin, China, the study demonstrates that the modified axle load conversion formulas are scientific and rational. The results of asphalt pavement design obtained using the mod- ified axle load conversion formulas increase the thickness and whole strength of the asphalt pavement structure; in addition, it can more efficiently satisfy the requirements of an actual vehicle running on the pavement.

بخشی از متن مقاله:
  1. Introduction

Most asphalt pavements are designed based on the stan- dards of pavement surface deflection and tensile stress of the pavement layer. Tensile and compressive strains at dif- ferent depths in the pavement system are critical responses to fatigue and rutting criteria. Design standards are deter- mined based on the volume of traffic axle loads. However, in the specification  of the asphalt pavement design (JTD D50-2006) in China,  the effects of seasonal variability on the axle load are not considered in the conversion of axle load to traffic volume. The axle load spectrum (ALS) was aggregated into a number of equivalent single axle loads. This characteristic affected the accuracy  and computational  performance of the pavement analysis. The analysis of equivalent axle load factors on the basis  of fatigue  criteria  used in various mechanistic-empirical  methods  of pavement  design  was presented  [۱,۴,۵]. A model for calculation of equivalent axle load factors (EALFs) was developed  by considering  the type of axle, the type of wheel and the constitution of the pavement   [۳]. Experimental  pavement deterioration data gained from accelerated load testing (ALT) were used to derive relative performance factors for rutting and rough- ness deterioration  for increases in axle loads  [۲]. The ade- quacy of using conventional  traffic data and national default values in the absence of weigh-in-motion (WIM) data for pavement design was examined, and a compara- tive study was conducted on Arizona USA [6]. Equivalent conversion  method of asphalt pavement axle-load skid-

resistance  performance  was determined  [۷]. A three- dimensional finite element model was utilized to simulate the AASHO road test pavement sections and to develop load equivalency factor (LEF) formulae for various pave- ment sections under various axle loadings [8]. The fatigue damage caused by multiple-axle configurations  is a key issue for pavement design, and a method for the computa- tion of the  fatigue  life of bituminous  mixtures  under multiple-axle configurations  was presented [9]. All afore- mentioned  research has been focused  on axle load spec- trum and its model, but the modification  of axle load affected by seasonal factors has not been involved to any significant extent.

Fig. 1 shows how seasonal variability  affects pavement performance under the same traffic loads.

In accordance with the specifications in China, aspects which contribute toward seasonal variability in traffic vol- ume mainly include the following:

(۱) Requirements with respect to subgrade consistency in asphalt pavement design.

(۲) Strength  indexes  of asphalt and asphalt mixtures, which are determined based on only one temperature.

(۳) Effects of seasonal variability on pavement deflection in the refurbishment of an old asphalt pavement.

Analysis of the 3 aforementioned  aspects indicates that these aspects have not entirely considered the effects of sea- sonal variability  on traffic volume.  In fact, the  design parameters (deflection, resilient modulus, etc.) of subgrade and pavement materials can be influenced by temperature and humidity of different seasons. The resilient modulus of the subgrade soils  can be significantly  influenced by in situ moisture content, and the resilient modulus of the pavement  materials  can be  influenced  by temperature. Thus, the pavement structure can be damaged given the same traffic axle loads because of seasonal variability,  or the volume of traffic axle loads can increase for the same pavement structure.

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