Investigation of pavement raveling performance using smartphone

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جزئیات بیشتر

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۲۰۲۱

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scopus – master journals – JCR

ایمپکت فاکتور

۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص Quartile (چارک)

Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

مدل مفهومی

ندارد

پرسشنامه

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متغیر

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رفرنس

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قوانین استفاده

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Investigation of pavement raveling performance using smartphone


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Investigation of pavement raveling performance using smartphone

Abstract

Raveling is one of the critical modes of failure in open graded asphalt mixtures. The Florida  Department of Transportation (FDOT) Districts 4 and 6, located in southeastern Florida,  have experienced a large amount of premature raveling with Open Graded Friction Course mixes (OGFC) compared to the other districts in Florida. To investigate the reason of raveling occurrence, the research team devised a data collection tool for smartphones and developed software to measure the raveling area and its location and severity in video images using smartphone GPS capability. The data used in this study were extracted from different FDOT database systems, such as the Laboratory  Information Management System (LIMS) and the Electronic  Data Management  System (EDMS), as well as from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Ten projects were surveyed by the research team, and numerical raveling statistics were developed and compared with qualitative

raveling ratings provided by FDOT. Good correlation  was found between the two methods. The comparison  was used to establish

thresholds of good performance. Such thresholds can be used to develop performance specifications or warranty benchmarks.

The relative  effects of mix design, construction,  and environmental  factors  were also studied. A project level of analysis  was

conducted. Several hypotheses were evaluated to determine the cause of premature raveling. Data analysis results indicate significant

correlations  between raveling and ambient temperature, mix temperature, mix spread rate, and gradation. In light of this study,

recommendations were made to enhance the longevity of the OGFC mixtures.

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  1. Introduction

Pavement or road surface  is the persistent apparent component of a roadway or walkway that provides the traffic surface for vehicular or pedestrians. Asphalt and concrete are the most frequent pavement materials  used in recent  decades  [۱–۳]. The quality of constructed  sub- structure and pavement during its design life is essential for pavement performance. Previous  studies showed that poor substructure conditions  may result in considerable increase in life cycle cost [4–۶]. As a result, pavement qual- ity and distress must be measured and evaluated during ser- viceability time to  improve   pavement   performance. Undesirable  pavement performance, as a civil infrastruc- ture system, is very difficult to be reversed  [۷,۸]. Due to that, the  pavement  distress  such as  raveling,  cracking, and rutting should be measured and detected [9]. Pavement raveling is one of the several  substantial  pavement dis- tresses that can lead to safety issues and causes frequent road maintenance. Pavement raveling is the loss of aggre- gate particles from the asphalt surface during the service life of pavement  [۱۰,۱۱]. There  are different  methods  to evaluate pavement distresses and raveling.  Some use the deduct value approach for various distresses to assess pave- ment condition [12]. In the deduct value approach, raters use their judgment to determine the severity and extent of raveling. The  Florida  Department   of  transportation (FDOT) Flexible Pavement Condition  Survey Handbook [13] defined  light  raveling  severity  as ‘‘aggregates  and bin- der have begun to wear away but have not progressed sig- nificantly, with some loss of aggregate.” Whereas moderate raveling severity was demonstrated as ‘‘aggregate and bin- der have worn away and the surface texture is moderately rough and pitted.”  Severe raveling  severity is defined as

‘‘aggregate and binder have begun to wear away and sur- face texture is very rough and pitted, loss of aggregate very noticeable”. Similar definitions can be found in the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s)  Distress Identifica- tion Manual [14]. However, this rating method has a degree of subjectivity  in determining  raveling  based on raters’ judgments [12].

Florida uses open  graded  friction course (OGFC) in multilane facilities with a design speed limit greater than or equal to 50 miles per hour. The OGFC asphalt has a high void content (approximately 18–۲۲%) and is designed to minimize hydroplaning  and reduce splash and spray. However, the OGFC has more durability  problems than dense graded mixes [15].

Districts 4 and 6 of the FDOT, which encompass south- east Florida, have had occasional performance problems with the FC-5 open graded friction courses that used oolitic limestone [16–۱۸]. In some cases, the FC-5 layer would start to ravel prematurely within three to five years after construction. This performance contrasts with other areas of  the  state  where  premature  raveling is quite rare, although  the use of oolitic limestone outside of Districts

۴ and 6 is not as common.

Many factors influence raveling; however, the contribu-

tion of each factor  is still unknown   [۱۱,۱۹]. Inadequate

compaction of pavement and its air void percentage, pave-

ment placement in wet weather, pavement mix design and

aggregate gradation,  losing  binder  cohesive or adhesive

capacity due to binder aging, and ambient condition  of

asphalt  are identified  as the main factors that promote

pavement  raveling  [۲۰-۲۴]. Pan and Huang  [۲۵] indicated

that coarse aggregate volume fraction  plays a significant

role in mixture fracture behaviors. In addition,  the meso-

simulation indicated that raveling occurs in a wide range

of temperatures, especially in high and low temperatures

[۲۶–۲۷].

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