Investigation of pavement raveling performance using smartphone
|نوع نگارش مقاله||
scopus – master journals – JCR
۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰
۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱
۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||
Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
خرید محصول توسط کلیه کارت های شتاب امکان پذیر است و بلافاصله پس از خرید، لینک دانلود محصول در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت و هر گونه فروش در سایت های دیگر قابل پیگیری خواهد بود.
فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Raveling is one of the critical modes of failure in open graded asphalt mixtures. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Districts 4 and 6, located in southeastern Florida, have experienced a large amount of premature raveling with Open Graded Friction Course mixes (OGFC) compared to the other districts in Florida. To investigate the reason of raveling occurrence, the research team devised a data collection tool for smartphones and developed software to measure the raveling area and its location and severity in video images using smartphone GPS capability. The data used in this study were extracted from diﬀerent FDOT database systems, such as the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) and the Electronic Data Management System (EDMS), as well as from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Ten projects were surveyed by the research team, and numerical raveling statistics were developed and compared with qualitative
raveling ratings provided by FDOT. Good correlation was found between the two methods. The comparison was used to establish
thresholds of good performance. Such thresholds can be used to develop performance speciﬁcations or warranty benchmarks.
The relative eﬀects of mix design, construction, and environmental factors were also studied. A project level of analysis was
conducted. Several hypotheses were evaluated to determine the cause of premature raveling. Data analysis results indicate signiﬁcant
correlations between raveling and ambient temperature, mix temperature, mix spread rate, and gradation. In light of this study,
recommendations were made to enhance the longevity of the OGFC mixtures.
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
Pavement or road surface is the persistent apparent component of a roadway or walkway that provides the traﬃc surface for vehicular or pedestrians. Asphalt and concrete are the most frequent pavement materials used in recent decades [۱–۳]. The quality of constructed sub- structure and pavement during its design life is essential for pavement performance. Previous studies showed that poor substructure conditions may result in considerable increase in life cycle cost [4–۶]. As a result, pavement qual- ity and distress must be measured and evaluated during ser- viceability time to improve pavement performance. Undesirable pavement performance, as a civil infrastruc- ture system, is very diﬃcult to be reversed [۷,۸]. Due to that, the pavement distress such as raveling, cracking, and rutting should be measured and detected . Pavement raveling is one of the several substantial pavement dis- tresses that can lead to safety issues and causes frequent road maintenance. Pavement raveling is the loss of aggre- gate particles from the asphalt surface during the service life of pavement [۱۰,۱۱]. There are diﬀerent methods to evaluate pavement distresses and raveling. Some use the deduct value approach for various distresses to assess pave- ment condition . In the deduct value approach, raters use their judgment to determine the severity and extent of raveling. The Florida Department of transportation (FDOT) Flexible Pavement Condition Survey Handbook  deﬁned light raveling severity as ‘‘aggregates and bin- der have begun to wear away but have not progressed sig- niﬁcantly, with some loss of aggregate.” Whereas moderate raveling severity was demonstrated as ‘‘aggregate and bin- der have worn away and the surface texture is moderately rough and pitted.” Severe raveling severity is deﬁned as
‘‘aggregate and binder have begun to wear away and sur- face texture is very rough and pitted, loss of aggregate very noticeable”. Similar deﬁnitions can be found in the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) Distress Identiﬁca- tion Manual . However, this rating method has a degree of subjectivity in determining raveling based on raters’ judgments .
Florida uses open graded friction course (OGFC) in multilane facilities with a design speed limit greater than or equal to 50 miles per hour. The OGFC asphalt has a high void content (approximately 18–۲۲%) and is designed to minimize hydroplaning and reduce splash and spray. However, the OGFC has more durability problems than dense graded mixes .
Districts 4 and 6 of the FDOT, which encompass south- east Florida, have had occasional performance problems with the FC-5 open graded friction courses that used oolitic limestone [16–۱۸]. In some cases, the FC-5 layer would start to ravel prematurely within three to ﬁve years after construction. This performance contrasts with other areas of the state where premature raveling is quite rare, although the use of oolitic limestone outside of Districts
4 and 6 is not as common.
Many factors inﬂuence raveling; however, the contribu-
tion of each factor is still unknown [۱۱,۱۹]. Inadequate
compaction of pavement and its air void percentage, pave-
ment placement in wet weather, pavement mix design and
aggregate gradation, losing binder cohesive or adhesive
capacity due to binder aging, and ambient condition of
asphalt are identiﬁed as the main factors that promote
pavement raveling [۲۰-۲۴]. Pan and Huang  indicated
that coarse aggregate volume fraction plays a signiﬁcant
role in mixture fracture behaviors. In addition, the meso-
simulation indicated that raveling occurs in a wide range
of temperatures, especially in high and low temperatures
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