Investigating influence of mineral filler at asphalt mixture and mastic scales

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scopus – master journals – JCR

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Investigating influence of mineral filler at asphalt mixture and mastic scales

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Investigating influence of mineral filler at asphalt mixture and mastic scales


This study is devoted to understand the mechanisms of mineral fillers in asphalt at the mixture and mastic scales. To do so, the phys- ical properties of asphalt mixtures and mastics were evaluated; in addition, a chemical investigation was presented into the mastic scale for the sake of providing  insight into the possible mechanisms between asphalt binder and mineral filler. Three mineral fillers namely hydrated lime (HL), limestone (LS), and cement bypass dust (CD) were incorporated  into an asphalt binder at different filler- to-binder (F/B) ratios. For the mechanistic evaluation of the mixtures, the indirect tensile strength (ITS), moisture damage evaluation, resilient modulus, and static creep-recovery tests were carried out. The fracture energies also were quantified  for all the studied mixtures. The results of penetration and softening point tests, as well as their pertinent penetration index (PI), were discussed to elucidate some physical properties of the mastics. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on the mastics to obtain infor- mation on molecular structures of the formed composites. The findings of this study emphasize that the physical properties of mixtures and mastics are highly dependent on type and concentration of mineral filler. The 1H NMR and 13C NMR results proved that the inclu- sion of the studied fillers did not change the molecular structure of the base asphalt binder; hereby the physical mechanisms stand behind the attained properties. It is believed that the findings of this work would contribute to growing knowledge of the mechanisms of mineral fillers in asphalt mixtures.

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  1. Introduction

Flexible  asphalt pavement layers consist of mineral fil- ler, coarse, and fine aggregates all cemented by the asphalt binder and blended at pre-specified weight  proportions determined from the mix design method. The blend of min- eral filler and asphalt binder forms the asphalt mastic des- tined to play a major role in controlling  the mechanical behavior of its mixture  [۱]. The coarse and fine particles act as the structural skeleton of the constructed pavement. Practically,  the hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture can be considered a system consisting  of the mastic coating  the aggregates rather than the aggregates coated with asphalt binder  [۲]. Consequently, the incorporation  of the mineral filler is indispensable and can significantly alter the proper- ties of the mixture. ASTM D 242 specification  [۳] requires that the filler passes through  No. 16 (1.18-mm), No. 30 (600-lm), No. 50 (300-lm), and No. 200 (75-lm) sieves with the requirements of 100%, 97–۱۰۰%, ۹۵–۱۰۰%, and 70–۱۰۰% passing, respectively. In general, the mineral filler is used in the HMA mixture for different purposes [4–۶]:

   To  meet  the  gradation   requirements  of the  whole minerals;

   To reduce the optimum content of the asphalt binder by filling the voids in the granular skeleton;

   To stabilize the mixture;

   To  increase  the  post-compaction   resistance  of  the


   To improve  the  bond strength  within the  asphalt-

aggregate system;

   To stiffen the asphalt; and

   To increase the asphalt volume in the mixture.

The properties of the asphalt mixtures are affected by several factors such as the physical and chemical properties of the forming components and the mechanisms between components   [۷]. It can be speculated that the quality  of the mineral filler is an important factor that controls the lifetime of roads to some extent. Several types of mineral fillers substantially differ in both physical and chemical properties have been practically  used in HMA: natural fil- lers such as mineral dust obtained from the screening and crushing of aggregates, and imported  fillers, e.g. lime, Port- land cement, fly ash, and slag [4]. A lot of research about the role of mineral fillers in the asphalt mixtures has been carried out in terms of different physical properties such as the indirect  tensile strength, toughness index, rutting [8], Marshall stability,  retained  strength [9], stiffness [10], fracture energy density, dissipated creep strain energy to failure [11], fatigue  cracking   [۱۲], and moisture damage [13]. At the mastic scale, several authors  (e.g. [10,14,15]) have reported that the potential for physical reinforcement of mineral fillers in their mastics may depend on the type, size, concentration or grading of the filler. Also in the liter- ature there is no certainty of correlation  between the mea- sured properties  of mastics  or reinforcement  and the properties of the used filler. Usually, the Rigden voids value of the mineral filler is used as an indicator of the rein- forcement   [۱۶]. Therefore, the physical evaluation is not probably sufficient to understand the mechanisms of min- eral filler in the mixture.  However,  the response of the HMA  mixture is material-type  dependent and can vary due to the  presence  of additional  mechanisms between the  asphalt and the  mineralogy  of mineral fillers [4]. Although  there have been many publications to determine the characteristics of asphalt mixtures containing mineral fillers, the behavior of fillers in the mixtures is still a contro- versial  topic among  researchers worldwide,  particularly when it comes  to the criteria  of selecting  a filler over another, due to the lack of both physical and chemical studies to fully understand  the filler mechanisms  in an interactive  manner  [۱۷]. In previous  studies [18–۲۰], the interfacial interaction between mineral fillers and asphalt binder was investigated with the aid of physical and chem- ical tests, including  dynamic mechanics analysis, differen- tial scanning  calorimetry,   surface  free  energy  testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. A significant impact of physicochemical inter-actions was registered, which are influenced by the specific surface area of the mineral  fillers. However,  the uncon- trolled variations of the properties of asphalt binders and mineral fillers prompt for additional  investigations into the influence of mineral fillers at the mixture and mastic scales. In this regard, the current investigation is intended to understand  the role of introducing  mineral fillers of varying amounts and types from the perspective of pre- pared mixtures and mastics. The asphalt mixtures were evaluated in terms of indirect tensile strength (ITS), resili- ent modulus, static creep-recovery, and moisture damage. The mastics were tested for penetration and softening point for the sake of physical evaluation, also the nuclear mag- netic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to explore the possible chemical mechanisms in the formed mastics.

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