Integrating eye-movement analysis and the semantic differential method to analyze the visual effect of a traditional commercial block in Hefei, China

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scopus – master journals – JCR

ایمپکت فاکتور

۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص Quartile (چارک)

Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Integrating eye-movement analysis and the semantic differential method to analyze the visual effect of a traditional commercial block in Hefei, China

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Integrating eye-movement analysis and the semantic differential method to analyze the visual effect of a traditional commercial block in Hefei, China



Eye-movement analysis  was adopted to evaluate the  visual perception of Chinese traditional commercial blocks, and  the  Chenghuangmiao block in Hefei,  China, was selected as a typical case. Eye-movement data from  ۴۰ respondents viewing 14 sample pictures were recorded. The spatial elements of the  sample pictures, including  landmarks and  commercial brands, were  further extracted to  analyze the visual characteristics of spatial elements and the  factors that affect the  respondents’ perceptions of those elements. Then,  the  semantic differential method was used  to analyze the  relationship between visual preferences and psy- chological perceptions of spatial elements. Seventeen pairs  of opposing  adjectives were selected to  score  the intrinsic properties and  visitors’  feelings of spaces. The software SPSS

۲۲٫۰ was used  to  analyze these data. Results  showed  that distinctive spatial elements, such as street corridors, Ma Tau Walls, and  various  landmarks, were  the most visually attractive. In addition, the  location of a given element within  a picture was an important factor affecting eye movements. On this basis,  strategies for improving spatial-visual effects are proposed. The strategies include emphasizing the  visual characteristics of different spatial elements, consid- ering the  overall  layout  of spatial elements, and creating diversified spaces based on different spatial categories.

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  1. Introduction

In recent years, with  the  rapid  development of  tourism, traditional commercial blocks,  as carriers of local  culture, have  begun  to revive. The development of the  spatial environment for such blocks cannot be separated from the human  activities that take place there because it  affects visitors’  physiological and  psychological responses. In turn, visitors’  visual  perceptions can  be  used  to  provide further guidance for design (Huang et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2018). The  relationship between spatial characteristics and  visi- tors’  perceptions should  thus  be  fully  considered in  any study  of traditional commercial blocks.

Currently, efforts are  being  made to protect traditional cultural areas, with several studies having been devoted to methods for  cultural-heritage protection (Wu, 1994; Ruan et al., 2004; Zhong et al., 2019; Zheng et al., 2014).  How- ever, most  previous studies have  focused on  a  particular structure,  generally conducting a  field  survey  to  gather data but  excluding other kinds of empirical data (Xu et al.,

۲۰۱۹; Bai et al., 2014; Marco et al., 2012).  Evaluations of commercial blocks,  for their part, have  been mostly  based on subjective impressions instead of quantified descriptions (Yang et al., 2011; Li et al., 2012). Analyses of how a block is  perceived  from   visitors’   perspectives  have   recently become more   common, but   they   are   for  the   most  part limited to a single  cognition.

When  people visit  a  traditional  commercial block,  the interaction between the  environment and visitors  is mostly visual.  In this  sense, the  ability  of traditional commercial blocks  to  capture the   attention of  visitors   is  crucial   to making the  block more  attractive. In the  present research, we  use  physiological measurements  obtained  using  eye- tracking methods to  evaluate respondents’ visual  percep- tion  of  traditional  commercial blocks,   such  as  the  Chen- ghuangmiao block of Hefei,  China.  Eye trackers record the coordinates  of  a  respondent’s  gaze   when   looking  at  a screen. This technology provides a new perspective on the respondents’ comprehension process because it shows the areas that attract the  respondent’s attention and the  visual path of his or her  gaze  on the  screen (Wu, 2019).  The eye- movement technology was  applied earlier to  evaluate the effect of advertising, reading, and driving (Chen,  ۲۰۱۴; Yan et al., 2013; Ito  et al., 2017; Victor  et  al.,  ۲۰۰۵; Babic et al., 2020),  which  having  been gradually introduced into research on  the   landscape, architecture,  and  tourism  in recent years. For instance, Sun et al.  (۲۰۲۰)  comprehen- sively  analyzed  the   perception and   eye-movement  data associated with  side  interface morphology   based on  the semantic differential (SD) method. They  explored the  in- fluence of  the   side  interface morphology   of  commercial streets on  the  perception of  pedestrians. Using the  eye- tracking technology in  the   urban   planning   context, a  vi- sual preference survey  was administered to a convenience sample to  evaluate quantitatively how individuals process and  rank  images   used   in  public   settings (Noland  et al.,

۲۰۱۶a,b). In addition, an eye-tracking experiment was conducted to  study  the  facades on  Tunxi  Ancient  Street. The  results showed  that visual  preferences are  influenced by different spatial elements (Zuo et al., 2019).  Further- more, the  study  showed  that the  positioning and  size  of elements influence the  level  of  attention (Misthos et al., 2019).

This study  used  an  eye  tracker and  the  SD method to enrich  current research on the  visual  perception of tradi- tional   commercial blocks.   The  SD method  measures  psy- chological feelings using a scale  that is expressed verbally (Zhuang,  ۱۹۹۶).  In addition, quantitative data on  the  re- spondents’ feelings can  be  obtained using  the  SD method (Zhang,  ۲۰۰۴).  Many previous studies have  used  the  eye- movement analysis  or  the  SD method as  evaluative tech- niques. However, to date, integrated applications of these two  methods for  the   analysis   of  traditional  commercial blocks  have  been limited.

This study  aims  to  analyze the  visual  effects of spatial elements in traditional  commercial blocks  in the  Chinese context. To this end, the  eye-tracking technology was first verified   as  a  tool  to  record the   respondents’ eye  move- ments as  they  view  sample pictures. The  key  spatial ele- ments  of  the   sample  pictures  were   then extracted to analyze the  relationships between visual  features and  the factors that affect the  perceptions of those visual features. Furthermore,  the   SD method  was  used   to   analyze the relationship between the  respondents’ visual  preferences and  their psychological perceptions.  Based  on a review  of the   relevant literature and  the  aim  of  the  research,  we hypothesize the  following:

(۱) Visual preferences are  closely  related to  spatial ele- ments,  and   distinctive  elements  are   more   easily noticed.

(۲) Visual  preferences  are   influenced  by  the   form   of spatial elements, such  as  their position, color, and size.

(۳) A  correlation may  exist  between visual  and  psycho- logical  perceptions.

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