Experimental salt cavern in offshore ultra-deep water and well design evaluation for CO2 abatement

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scopus – master journals – JCR

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

شاخص H_index

۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

شاخص SJR

۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰

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توضیحات مختصر محصول
Experimental salt cavern in offshore ultra-deep water and well design evaluation for CO2 abatement

فهرست مطالب مقاله:



This paper presents a proposal for an experimental salt cavern in offshore ultra-deep water for CO2  abate- ment, including the instrumentation plan and well conceptual design evaluated for  carbon capture and storage (CCS) application. These studies are  based on  applied computational mechanics associated with field experimentation that has contributed to the technical feasibility of the underground potash mine at the State of Sergipe in Brazil. This  knowhow allowed the stability analysis of several salt caverns for brine production at the State of Alagoas in Brazil and to the drilling through stratified thick layers of salt of the pre-salt reservoirs in  Santos Basin. Now, this knowledge has been applied in  the design of onshore and offshore salt caverns opened by dissolution for storage of natural gas  and CO2. The  geomechanical study, through the application of  computational mechanics, of  offshore giant salt caverns of  ۴۵۰ m  high by

150 m  in diameter, shows that one cavern can   store about 4  billion Sm3  or  ۷٫۲  million tons of  CO2.

Before the construction of the giant cavern, which will  be  the first gas  storage offshore in  the world, it has been decided to develop an  experimental one, with smaller size,  to obtained field parameters. The experimental cavern will  allow the calibration of parameters to be  used in the structural integrity anal- ysis  of the cavern and well for  storage of natural gas  which is rich in  CO2  under high pressure.

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  1. Introduction

The  petroleum in  the pre-salt reservoirs in  Brazil  possess very high gas-oil-ratio (GOR) with high content of carbon dioxide. Some of these gases are  treated and separated on the platform using the membrane technology, reducing the CO2   content to  ۳%, and it  is possible to  transfer a portion of the natural gas  to  shore through carbon steel pipelines. The  remaining part possessing mainly CO2 gas is reinjected back  into the reservoir. At the beginning of the life of the fields,  the reinjection of this gas  supported EOR (enhanced oil recovery) in a process called water alternated gas (WAG). How- ever,  as  the same molecules of CO2  recycles several times within the same drainage radius of  the wells, the CO2   content starts to 

increase  significantly, making it  unfeasible for  its  treatment  in the platform, which may force  the closure of production wells.

For this scenario, the salt  rock  serves as a strategic geomaterial for the process of confining the gas  stream with high CO2  content, since this gas can  be injected and contained in salt  caverns instead of reinjecting into the reservoirs.

The application of computational mechanics contributed to the technical feasibility of a potash mine at the State of Sergipe in Bra- zil, with the peculiar challenge of mining the ore  overlying a high creep strain rate salt  rock  known as tachyhydrite; stability analysis of several salt  caverns for brine production at the State of Alagoas in Brazil; and in the drilling through thick stratified layers of rock salt  of the pre-salt reservoirs in Santos Basin, and now in the design of onshore and offshore salt  caverns opened by dissolution mining for storage of natural gas and CO2 [1,2]. Simulation results obtained shows the technical feasibility of huge storage volumes of natural

gas and CO2  in giant salt  caverns offshore. Salt caverns 450  m high by 150  m  in diameter can  store about 4 billion Sm3 or 7.2  million tons of CO2. The salt  dome studied can  accommodate the construc- tion  of  ۱۵   giant  caverns,  thus,  providing  the  confinement  of

approximately 108  million tons of CO2. Before  the construction of the giant cavern, which will  be  the first  gas  storage offshore in the world, it  has  been decided to  develop an  experimental pilot- size   cavern, to  obtained field   parameters to  be  applied in  the detailed design and construction of the giant salt  caverns.

The produced gas with high content of CO2  is treated at the pro- duction platform through membrane filters. Part  of the treated gas with a maximum CO2 content of 3% is compressed to shore through gas pipe lines. The remainder gas with CO2  content of 70% to 80% is reinjected into the reservoirs, working as EOR (enhanced oil recov- ered) in the initial age  of the reservoirs production. With time the recycled gas with CO2  increases the global CO2  content of the asso- ciated gas, becoming a problem to the membrane filter system and at the same time reducing the oil  production due to  the increase concentration of gas  with CO2  in the total hydrocarbon produced. Therefore, there  is  a  demand  for   carbon  capture  and  storage (CCS) of  large quantities of  CO2   associated with CH4   in  the pre- salt  offshore oil fields in Brazil.

The state of the art of technologies applicable to the geological sequestration of CO2  can  be  highlighted: utilization in EOR opera- tions, disposal in depleted oil and gas  reservoirs, injection in deep saline aquifers and storage in salt  caverns. There is a vast literature about salt  caverns and most of them is found in review articles [3–

۱۴].  Some  articles are  related to  storage of CO2  [۱۵–۲۵].

At the initial development plan of the pre-salt reservoirs, there was  a hypothesis of reinjecting the CO2  gas stream into nearby sal- ine  aquifers which could only  be selected below the pre-salt reser- voirs.  In view of the small layer thickness of the sediment above the salt  layer (between 500 m and 800 m) which cannot withstand the envisaged volume CO2  at the injection pressure and tempera- ture demanded [26].

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