Experimental salt cavern in offshore ultra-deep water and well design evaluation for CO2 abatement
|نوع نگارش مقاله||
scopus – master journals – JCR
۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰
۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱
۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||
Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
خرید محصول توسط کلیه کارت های شتاب امکان پذیر است و بلافاصله پس از خرید، لینک دانلود محصول در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت و هر گونه فروش در سایت های دیگر قابل پیگیری خواهد بود.
فهرست مطالب مقاله:
This paper presents a proposal for an experimental salt cavern in offshore ultra-deep water for CO2 abate- ment, including the instrumentation plan and well conceptual design evaluated for carbon capture and storage (CCS) application. These studies are based on applied computational mechanics associated with field experimentation that has contributed to the technical feasibility of the underground potash mine at the State of Sergipe in Brazil. This knowhow allowed the stability analysis of several salt caverns for brine production at the State of Alagoas in Brazil and to the drilling through stratified thick layers of salt of the pre-salt reservoirs in Santos Basin. Now, this knowledge has been applied in the design of onshore and offshore salt caverns opened by dissolution for storage of natural gas and CO2. The geomechanical study, through the application of computational mechanics, of offshore giant salt caverns of ۴۵۰ m high by
150 m in diameter, shows that one cavern can store about 4 billion Sm3 or ۷٫۲ million tons of CO2.
Before the construction of the giant cavern, which will be the first gas storage offshore in the world, it has been decided to develop an experimental one, with smaller size, to obtained field parameters. The experimental cavern will allow the calibration of parameters to be used in the structural integrity anal- ysis of the cavern and well for storage of natural gas which is rich in CO2 under high pressure.
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
The petroleum in the pre-salt reservoirs in Brazil possess very high gas-oil-ratio (GOR) with high content of carbon dioxide. Some of these gases are treated and separated on the platform using the membrane technology, reducing the CO2 content to ۳%, and it is possible to transfer a portion of the natural gas to shore through carbon steel pipelines. The remaining part possessing mainly CO2 gas is reinjected back into the reservoir. At the beginning of the life of the fields, the reinjection of this gas supported EOR (enhanced oil recovery) in a process called water alternated gas (WAG). How- ever, as the same molecules of CO2 recycles several times within the same drainage radius of the wells, the CO2 content starts to
increase significantly, making it unfeasible for its treatment in the platform, which may force the closure of production wells.
For this scenario, the salt rock serves as a strategic geomaterial for the process of confining the gas stream with high CO2 content, since this gas can be injected and contained in salt caverns instead of reinjecting into the reservoirs.
The application of computational mechanics contributed to the technical feasibility of a potash mine at the State of Sergipe in Bra- zil, with the peculiar challenge of mining the ore overlying a high creep strain rate salt rock known as tachyhydrite; stability analysis of several salt caverns for brine production at the State of Alagoas in Brazil; and in the drilling through thick stratified layers of rock salt of the pre-salt reservoirs in Santos Basin, and now in the design of onshore and offshore salt caverns opened by dissolution mining for storage of natural gas and CO2 [1,2]. Simulation results obtained shows the technical feasibility of huge storage volumes of natural
gas and CO2 in giant salt caverns offshore. Salt caverns 450 m high by 150 m in diameter can store about 4 billion Sm3 or 7.2 million tons of CO2. The salt dome studied can accommodate the construc- tion of ۱۵ giant caverns, thus, providing the confinement of
approximately 108 million tons of CO2. Before the construction of the giant cavern, which will be the first gas storage offshore in the world, it has been decided to develop an experimental pilot- size cavern, to obtained field parameters to be applied in the detailed design and construction of the giant salt caverns.
The produced gas with high content of CO2 is treated at the pro- duction platform through membrane filters. Part of the treated gas with a maximum CO2 content of 3% is compressed to shore through gas pipe lines. The remainder gas with CO2 content of 70% to 80% is reinjected into the reservoirs, working as EOR (enhanced oil recov- ered) in the initial age of the reservoirs production. With time the recycled gas with CO2 increases the global CO2 content of the asso- ciated gas, becoming a problem to the membrane filter system and at the same time reducing the oil production due to the increase concentration of gas with CO2 in the total hydrocarbon produced. Therefore, there is a demand for carbon capture and storage (CCS) of large quantities of CO2 associated with CH4 in the pre- salt offshore oil fields in Brazil.
The state of the art of technologies applicable to the geological sequestration of CO2 can be highlighted: utilization in EOR opera- tions, disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, injection in deep saline aquifers and storage in salt caverns. There is a vast literature about salt caverns and most of them is found in review articles [3–
۱۴]. Some articles are related to storage of CO2 [۱۵–۲۵].
At the initial development plan of the pre-salt reservoirs, there was a hypothesis of reinjecting the CO2 gas stream into nearby sal- ine aquifers which could only be selected below the pre-salt reser- voirs. In view of the small layer thickness of the sediment above the salt layer (between 500 m and 800 m) which cannot withstand the envisaged volume CO2 at the injection pressure and tempera- ture demanded .
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