COVID-19 pandemic impacts on traffic system delay, fuel consumption and emissions
|نوع نگارش مقاله||
scopus – master journals – JCR
۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰
۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱
۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||
Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
خرید محصول توسط کلیه کارت های شتاب امکان پذیر است و بلافاصله پس از خرید، لینک دانلود محصول در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت و هر گونه فروش در سایت های دیگر قابل پیگیری خواهد بود.
فهرست مطالب مقاله:
A dramatic reduction in traffic demand has been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, producing noticeable declines in traffic delays, energy consumption, and emissions. This unprecedented event provides us with the chance to investigate how limiting the number of vehicles on the transportation network can contribute to a better environment. This paper quantifies the effects of reduced traffic demand on vehicle delays, fuel consumption, and emission levels. Microscopic simulation was used to model traffic for seven different networks. Our results show that decreased traffic demand contributes significantly to reducing delays and emissions, especially in congested urban areas. The results also show that another important contributing factor is the network configuration. Specifically, net- works with lower connectivity and fewer routing alternatives or networks with lower roadway density are more sensitive to traffic demand drops in terms of reducing vehicle delays and emissions.
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
The modern transportation system is composed of a large number of personal vehicles. For example, in the United States, there were 264 million registered vehicles in ۲۰۱۵٫ Given such numbers, traffic congestion, fuel consumption, and green- house gas emissions have become a serious problem. According to data from Forbes, traffic congestion cost US cities more than $88 billion in 2019 (FORBES 2020). Data from the US Energy Information Administration show that the transportation sector accounted for 28.2% of the total energy consumption in the US and contributed to ۲۸% of emissions in 2018.1
Transportation engineers devote tremendous attention to reducing the negative traffic and environmental impacts gen- erated by vehicles. Their efforts include increasing the capability of roads (adding lanes, widening roads, or building inter- changes), implementing road pricing, improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines, identifying alternative power sources, optimizing the trajectories of vehicles by rerouting, eco-routing, or speed harmonization, and optimizing traffic con- trol devices to decrease the frequency of acceleration and deceleration through traffic signal optimization, gating, and boundary control (Cairns, Atkins et al. ۲۰۰۱; Lo and Szeto 2005; Samaras and Meisterling 2008; Silva, Ross et al., 2009;
Earleywine, Gonder et al. 2010; Barth et al., 2011; AERIS 2012; Ahn et al., 2013; Ahn and Rakha 2014; McCoy and Stephens
2014; Bigazzi and Clifton 2015; Du, Guo et al. 2015; Elbery A. 2015; TRB 2016; Ma R. 2017; Litman 2018; Al-Masaeid 2019; Calle-Laguna, Du et al. ۲۰۱۹). However, the effects of such improvements are typically insignificant because the current transportation system is overloaded. The transportation system is running at its capacity and any method to improve its effi- ciency becomes marginal. The large number of vehicles is the solid base of the system, and any method of improvement can only scratch the surface of the problem.
Interestingly, the most effective possible solution to this problem has been the least investigated by previous research: decreasing the demand and the number of vehicles in the network. The reason is that, theoretically, this solution can never be achieved: people need to travel for work, leisure, running errands, and other purposes. According to the Bureau of Trans- portation Statistics (BTS), total vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on highways increased on average by 1% each year from 2000 to
2018, reaching 3240327 (millions, 2018) VMT, up from 2746925 (millions, 2000) (BTS 2019).
At the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic became such a serious contagion that the whole world began to shut down. A Michigan-based transportation data management company, MS2, launched the Traffic Dashboard to provide timely information for monitoring the impacts. The daily traffic volume trends (DTVT), a metric about the daily traffic volume change compared to the same day of the week in the same month for the most recent year, was created and published to reflect the traffic volume changes across the US (MS2 ۲۰۲۰). According to their data, overall national traffic has been cut down by up to ۶۵%. Similar statistics have been provided by Google (Google 2020). In general, the reduction in traffic vol- umes ranged from 40% to ۶۵% by state.
Due to this dramatic change in traffic volumes, reporters found that the air quality in the Los Angeles (LA) area improved phenomenally (CNN 2020). Cities with historically high levels of PM2.5 witnessed a dramatic drop in pollution since enforc- ing lockdowns (BBC 2020). This raises a question that seemed impossible to answer before, namely: to what extent can reduced traffic demand impact traffic congestion, vehicle fuel consumption, and emission levels? Are these impacts network specific?
The purpose of this paper is to study the changes in traffic delays, vehicle fuel consumption and emissions of the trans- portation system during this unprecedented pandemic. Multiple networks were selected to serve as the testbeds. The changes are explored for each network. Suggestions on policy making regarding pollution and delay control are provided accordingly.
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