Contested incrementalism: Elemental’s Quinta Monroy settlement fifteen years on

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Contested incrementalism: Elemental’s Quinta Monroy settlement fifteen years on


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Contested incrementalism: Elemental’s Quinta Monroy settlement fifteen years on

Abstract

 Quinta  Monroy is an award-winning co-designed settlement for 93 families  on half a hectare of land  at Iquique  in northern Chile.  Neighbors’  complaints about the  disorderly set- tlement peaked after the  landowner’s death and provoked untenured residents to seek govern- ment subsidies  to redevelop the  settlement. From 2003,  a government social  housing  project was coordinated by the  “Elemental” architecture firm with US$10,000 per household. With the resident’s temporary relocation, 93 modular and  interlinked apartments were  built  around a series  of courtyards. These  apartments, which  were  designed as “half-houses,” were  subse- quently co-opted by residents adding  rooms  in locations planned in advance by Elemental. Many households have  since  doubled the  size of their apartment and reformed the  settlement in ways not  anticipated by Elemental.

This paper details a spatial and  ethnographic study  of the  Quinta  Monroy settlement since redevelopment to identify opportunities and  risks that accompany this  type  of social  housing model. The study  reveals evidence that residents’ capacities to enlarge apartments commonly exceeds the  architect’s expectations and  that unregulated expansions often compromise the settlement’s livability. This research anticipates further opportunities for expansion in this semi-regulated settlement and  investigates possibilities that another contested slum settle- ment may emerge.

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  1. Introduction

The Elemental architecture firm, which was described as a “Do  Tank,”   was  initiated by  Alejandro  Aravena,  Andres Iacobelli, and  Pablo  Allard at Harvard  University  in 2000 to

focus  on  social  housing  strategies.  Elemental’s links  with Harvard  University  and  Pontificia   Universidad Catolica de Chile extend into the  Chilean Government’s Dynamic Social Housing   Without   Debt   (VSDsD) program.  The   program, which  was  delivered via  the   Ministry  of  Housing  and  Ur- banism (MINVU), distributes funds to private developers and NGOs  to   develop  social   housing   units   (MINVU, 2017). Elemental has  responded by  delivering a  series   of  public lectures,  interviews, exhibitions, and  architectural  com- petitions to  drive  conversations addressing social  housing policy. Aravena’s  profile, particularly as director of Elemental, was  further enhanced after winning  the  Silver Lion award  for Promising  Young Architect at the  ۲۰۰۸ Ven- ice   Architecture  Biennale.  The   award    recognized   Ele- mental’s reinvention of the  Quinta  Monroy settlement and raised the  firm’s  standing to  such  an  extent  that Aravena was  awarded the  prestigious Pritzker Prize  and  the  direc- torship  of  the   Venice  Architecture  Biennale eight   years later in 2016.

The  broader architectural community, particularly the online  press, celebrated Aravena  and  Elemental’s success, and  the  Quinta  Monroy project captured significant atten- tion  (Stohr  and  Cameron, 2006).  Aravena’s  ۲۰۱۴ TEDGlobal presentation, which was viewed  more  than  ۲ million times, highlighted  Elemental’s  approach   and   showcased their subsequent social  housing  project at Villa Verde  (۲۰۰۹). Commercial buildings, including  the  research laboratory at the   Catholic   University  in  Santiago   (۲۰۱۴),  have  brought further acclaim. The  production of Elemental’s self-titled book in 2016 positioned the  team as leaders in the  partic- ipatory housing  space.

Elemental  had  strong   credentials when   appointed  by MINVU  to  redevelop the  Quinta  Monroy settlement.  From 2003, Elemental’s design competitions had encouraged transparent  economic modeling targeted  toward satisfying requirements set  by MINVU.  Once  Elemental was  appoin- ted, it hosted a series  of community-based public  meetings at Quinta Monroy to demonstrate its capacity to collaborate and   co-design  with  the   community.  They  reported that households  were   keen   to  play   a  continued  role   in  the decision-making process  and  were   prepared to  share   re- sponsibility for the  redevelopment (Aravena  and  Iacobelli,

۲۰۱۶).  A  key  issue  of  community concern was  the  desire to avoid permanent relocation to cheaper land  on the  city outskirts with Elemental reporting that residents expressed an  overwhelming desire to  stay  within  their existing neighborhood to maintain social  and  economic networks.

This situation posed  an  immediate problem as subsidies offered by the VSDsD program were  capped at US$10,000 per household.  This  proportion  typically equated  to   ۳۰  m2 apartments in  developments on  low-cost sites at the city fringes  (Aravena  et al., 2004).  However,  Quinta Monroy’s premium location forced Elemental to allocate a higher proportion,  that is,  US$2500 per   household, toward  land acquisition with apartment construction costs then set at US$7500 each. Elemental used  figures  from  the established housing  market and  calculated that this  proportion would provide    apartments  up   to  ۲۵   m2,   which   immediately conflicted with the residents’ complaints of overcrowding in households averaging 30 m2  (Aravena  and Iacobelli, 2016).

When  Elemental was  faced with  this choice, it  began investigating the viability of providing  partially completed apartments that allowed for future expansion by residents (Aravena  and  Iacobelli, 2016).  In what  could  be described as  a  melding  of Modernist and  Self-build  ideologies, Ele- mental’s approach was to harness the informal productive capacity of  the  residents after the  delivery of  a  formal and   industrialized   framework.   Aravena   explained   his

architectural  philosophy   at his  TEDGlobal presentation, “You provide   the frame and  from  then on  families   take over”  (۲۰۱۴).

Quinta  Monroy, who was Elemental’s first social  housing project, was  one  of  various  innovative and  experimental housing projects for the  poor emerging within  the  Dynamic Social  Housing  Without  Debt  (VSDsD)  and  the  “Chile  Bar- rio”   (Chilean   Neighborhood) programs.  In  the   following years, Elemental’s approach has  been adapted to  at least

۱۲  housing   projects including   ۲۰۴۵  houses   in  Chile  and Mexico   with   Elemental’s  vision   influencing  discussions around  social   and   participative housing   for  the   poor  in Latin  America   and   the   wider   world   (Negro,   ۲۰۱۶).   Ele- mental’s concepts have  also  influenced academia and  the education of  professionals addressing urban   and  housing studies in emerging economies (O’Brien et al., 2020). However, the  commentary  surrounding Elemental’s hous- ing projects has rarely been critically analyzed, and investigation of the  longer-term impacts of resident-driven incremental housing growth  has been inadequate. This gap in the  knowledge is particularly concerning given that Ferguson  and  Smets  (۲۰۱۰) estimated that 50%e80% of the people in  developing countries  build  their homes   incre- mentally.  Therefore, this  study  is motivated by the  need to critically observe residents’ approaches for building incrementally within  a  framework designed to  encourage housing  growth.

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