Computational design in architecture: Defining parametric, generative, and algorithmic design

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Computational design in architecture: Defining parametric, generative, and algorithmic design

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فهرست مطالب مقاله:

Computational design in architecture: Defining parametric, generative, and algorithmic design


Abstract    Computation-based approaches in design  have  emerged in the last decades and rapidly  became popular among  architects and  other designers. Design professionals and  re- searchers adopted different terminologies to address these approaches. However, some terms are  used  ambiguously and  inconsistently, and  different terms are  commonly  used  to express the  same  concept. This paper discusses computational design  (CD) and  proposes an improved and  sound  taxonomy for a set  of key CD terms, namely, parametric, generative, and  algo- rithmic design, based on an extensive literature review  from  which  different definitions by various  authors were  collected, analyzed, and  compared.

بخشی از متن مقاله:
  1. Introduction

This  work  collects several terms that  emerged from  the increasing use  of  computational design  (CD) methods  in architecture,  discusses the  evolution of  their definitions, and  proposes a well-founded taxonomy. This section con- textualizes CD within  building  design.

The growth  and  spread of CD marked a “computational turn” in building design that revolutionized traditional design processes, which  were   heavily  based on  manual drafting tasks.  Currently,  CD challenges  and   renovates  previous architectural design conventions and praxis (Rocker, 2006).

Early implementations of CD include CRAFT (Armour and Buffa,  ۱۹۶۳),  an  algorithm-based system  that uses  a  heu- ristic  to optimize spatial location patterns for  physical  fa- cilities, such as manufacturing plants. CRAFT was among the first  systems  to  automate design  procedures using  optimi- zation techniques. However, it was confined to the  design of the  topological relationships among different programmatic parts of an industrial facility, neither addressing geometric descriptions nor presenting a graphical user  interface (GUI) that   designers could   use.    Meanwhile,   Ivan   Sutherland introduced the  Sketchpad computer  program (Sutherland,

۱۹۶۳),    the    ancestor  of   computer-aided  design    (CAD), which enabled not only the  automation of drafting tasks but also  the   setting  of  parametric  relationships among   geo- metric entities using  a  GUI. In the  same  decade, General Motors  developed the  CAD-like system   DAC-1  (۱۹۶۴),  and some  authors addressed the  automated optimization of programmatic  layouts    of   industrial  buildings   (Krejcirik, 1969; Seehof  et al., 1966; Whitehead and  Eldars, 1965). However,  CAD and  building  information modeling (BIM) tools   only  became  commercially available  in  the   early 1980s. Building-performance simulation tools also emerged, thereby empowering designers to  analyze their designs  in terms of different performance criteria.

Parallel to  the  development of CD tools, several scien- tific  events on  CD were  critical for  the  adoption of computation-based approaches in architecture. The Design Methods   (۱۹۶۲)   conference  was   a   pioneer event that mapped the  early  developments of CD in architecture.  The 1st International Congress on Performance (1972) began  the discussion   on  applying   computation to  simulate  building performance. Other  CD-related international conferences were  consistently held  in the  following  decades. Similarly, several  scientific journals,  such   as  Automation  in  Con- struction (1992), International Journal of Architectural Computing (2003),   and  Journal of  Building  Performance Simulation  (۲۰۰۸),   exclusively focused  on  CD research. Others  gradually incorporated CD topics, such  as Architec- tural Design  and   Design  Studies  (۱۹۷۹).   Fig.  ۱  shows  a timeline of CD-related conferences and  journals.

As a result of the  adoption of CD in architecture, several terms emerged for different approaches. However, the current literature shows inconsistencies in the  definitions of some CD-related terms, mainly caused by their overlapping scopes. This work  aims  to  propose a  well-structured tax- onomy  for  these terms, that is,  a  system for  naming  and organizing   their definitions. Such  taxonomy aspires for  a consensus that  prevents the   inconsistent use  of  certain terms. To achieve this  objective, the  methodology of this work requires a statistical analysis  of the  use of these terms in  the   literature. Such  analysis   serves   as  a  guide  to  the development of  the  proposed taxonomy that  (۱)  confines the  conceptual and operational scopes  of each  CD term, (2) avoids  equivalent uses  of different terms, and  (۳) clarifies the   possible   combinations among  them. Thus,  this  work follows  three main  steps:

  1. Identify the most relevant CD terms,
  2. Collect and trace the  evolution of their definitions, and
  3. Propose a consistent and sound  taxonomy for them.

We believe that the  resulting taxonomy improves  the  use of CD-related terms in architecture. This research does  not aim to propose a fully consolidated taxonomy of terms but rather to  provide  a  starting  point   for  the   architectural community to  promote further  discussions that  move  to- ward   the   normalization  of  the   terms’  definitions in  an improved and  complete taxonomy of CD terms.

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