An account of critical regionalism in diverse building types in postcolonial Indian architecture
|نوع نگارش مقاله||
scopus – master journals – JCR
۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰
۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱
۰٫۹۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||
Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
خرید محصول توسط کلیه کارت های شتاب امکان پذیر است و بلافاصله پس از خرید، لینک دانلود محصول در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت و هر گونه فروش در سایت های دیگر قابل پیگیری خواهد بود.
فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Critical regionalism is an architectural concept that seeks to balance local needs and capabilities with the progressive lessons of modernisation. Critical regionalism has been an inﬂuential architectural approach in postcolonial Indian architecture. Even before the term was coined in the ۱۹۸۰s, architects in India had subconsciously begun pursuing the ideas of critical regionalism in designing their buildings. The degree of inﬂuence of critical regionalism on postcolonial Indian architecture has varied over the course of time as a result of economic, political and social changes. This paper identiﬁes key architectural projects realised in India since ۱۹۴۷ that adhere to the ideas and principles of critical regionalism. The identiﬁed regionalist projects have been categorised according to their building programmes and signiﬁcant examples in each building type are discussed chronologically while bringing forth their qualities that make them regionalist in ﬁrst place. By focussing on regionalist projects of signiﬁcance in each building type, the paper highlights that critical regionalism is capable of producing potent architecture to cater to any building programme.
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
The architectural legacy left behind by the British in India did not adequately address the local climatic conditions and socio-cultural needs (Grover, ۱۹۹۵). Thus, it was not surprising that the British architectural inﬂuence dwindled soon after India gained independence in 1947. Independent India chose modernism as its preferred architectural approach with the belief that it could solve its problems such as social inequality (Gupta and Kalamdani, 1998). However, by the ۱۹۶۰s, architects in India began realising the limitations of modernist architecture (Lang, ۲۰۰۲, pp. ۱۲۵). The limited interpretation of ‘function’ offered by modernist architecture seemed inadequate to certain architects who wished to fulﬁl the social and cultural aspirations of their Indian clientele (Jadhav, 2007).
Indian architects like Charles Correa, Raj Rewal and Balkrishna Doshi sought to overcome the dominance of modernism that they had themselves inherited through their Western education. They began incorporating the ideas of critical regionalism in their works to counter the homogenisation of architecture resulting from modernism. Correa, Rewal and Doshi’s works of 1980s acted as models for critical regionalist architecture in India in the decades to follow (Mehrotra, 1990, pp. ۱۲۰). However, with transitions in Indian economy, political landscape and social milieu, the inﬂuence wielded by critical regionalism in the Indian architectural scene has varied over the course of time. After the liberalisation of Indian economy in the ۱۹۹۰s, more and more architectural projects started adopting the
‘global’ architectural style having glass curtain walls and plastic ﬁnishes (Jadhav, ۲۰۰۷). This trend has, however, induced a greater inclination amongst certain Indian archi- tects towards critical regionalism (Menon, 2000).
Being a developing country, India cannot afford to expend valuable resources and energy to construct and operate buildings that are blind imitations of buildings in the West (Correa, 1983; Doshi, 1985). Therefore, new architectural practices have emerged in India in the ۲۱st century that engage in architecture sensitised to the local conditions (Mehrotra, 2011, pp. ۱۲۸).
In order to have a better understanding of the progression of critical regionalism in postcolonial India, it is important to ﬁrstly identify key architectural projects realised in India since 1947 that adhere to the ideas and principles of critical regionalism. Scholarship on critical regionalism reveals key assessment criteria that a building should respect in order to be critically regionalist. Based on these criteria, critical regionalist projects in India were identiﬁed and then categorised according to their building programmes. Sig- niﬁcant examples in each building type have been discussed chronologically in this paper while bringing forth their qualities that make them regionalist in ﬁrst place. More- over, the paper attempts to highlight that critical regional- ism is capable of producing potent architecture to cater to any kind of building programme. The categorisation of regionalist projects according to their building programmes also highlights how the varying socio-politico-economic conditions in postcolonial India have impacted the inﬂuence of critical regionalism on each building type differently. Lastly, the paper is able to ascertain in which building types
critical regionalism is getting overlooked and in which building types it continues to hold relevance.
۱٫۱٫ Deﬁning critical regionalism
The term Critical Regionalism was coined by Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre in the early ۱۹۸۰s, and was later elaborated by architectural critic and historian Kenneth Frampton in his essay ‘Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance’, published in 1983. Critical regionalism can be deﬁned is an architectural approach that strives to counter the homogeneity inherent in modernist architecture (Henrique, 2013; Slessor, ۲۰۰۰). By using contextual forces, critical regionalism imparts a sense of place and meaning to architecture. Critical region- alist designs are sensitive to the local climate as well as the technological constraints of the local building industry. The practitioners of critical regionalism seek to integrate global architectural and technological developments with regional sensibilities derived from spatial, cultural and historical contexts (Yeang, 1987, pp. ۲۸).
Critical regionalism differs from regionalism in a way that it does not resort to blind use of vernacular (Henrique, 2013). By being critical of a region’s building traditions, a practitioner is able to extract only the essence of these traditions rather than literal refer- ences (Lefaivre and Tzonis, 2003, pp. ۱۰). Furthermore, critical regionalists despise post-modern architecture for applying eclectic historical references to contem- porary works without considerations of their appropri- ateness (Mehrotra, 2011, pp. ۱۲۲).
Contemporary architecture has predominately been indulging in standardised solutions that aim to minimise construction costs (Henrique, 2013). Homogeneous solutions are being replicated around the world without paying much attention to the speciﬁcities of different locations where the buildings are situated. By employing normative plans, the construction industry has reduced the role of architec- ture to merely designing the external skins for packaging their buildings (Frampton, 2007). Critical regionalism is therefore vital in contemporary times as it resists the overpowering onslaught of homogeneously internationalised architecture by relating architecture to the realities of the place.
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