A graphical multi-objective performance evaluation method with architect-friendly mode

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A graphical multi-objective performance evaluation method with architect-friendly mode

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A graphical multi-objective performance evaluation method with architect-friendly mode


In response to the  inadaptation and  difficulties for architects in the  use  of engi- neering simulation tools and optimization methods, a method is proposed for graphical perfor- mance evaluation achieved with  a developed plugin for Grasshopper as an architect-friendly tool  to support design  exploration in early  stage. The proposed method follows forward work- flow for interactive feedback of performance, focusing  on thermal and  visual comfort upon  a variety of design  options. A case  study  of shading  design  is demonstrated. The demonstration illustrated an intuitive and graphical process for qualitative performance evaluation, which is assisted by an overall  ratio  ranking  the  integrated performance of design  options for a quan- titative comparison. Compared with  engineering optimization methods that focus  on optimal performance-based solutions, the  proposed method presented graphical feedbacks on design performance that are  interactive with  the  designer for performance-informed decision mak- ing. In this way, the  proposed method stimulates the  effective and positive application of en- gineering tools  and  judgment at the  early  stage of iterative design.

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  1. Introduction

Building performance has become a major concern in architectural  design   due   to  increasing requirements  for energy  efficiency and  high-performance buildings  (Nguyen et al., 2014).   Building  performance  simulation (BPS) is, therefore, more  helpful in the  early  design  stage explore more  design  alternatives (Han  et al., 2018),  and  its  best efficiency on energy, environmental, and  comfort analysis (Athienitis and  O’Brien,  ۲۰۱۵; Konis et al., 2016).  Also, it has been integrated with the  optimization design  study  for optimal performance-based design solutions. With the development of computer science and simulation tools, BPS has  received growing attention in the  architectural  design process,  and   the   number  of  simulation  tools   has   been

developed for this  purpose. In the  last  decade, there have been nearly  two  hundred BPS tools. Meanwhile, studies on BPS and optimization methods in building  design have  been in a dramatically rising trend (Evins, 2013; Machairas et al., 2014; Nguyen et al., 2014),  some  of which  are  particularly aimed  at the  early  design  stage for  architects. Li. et al. developed a bidirectional method in the  early  design  stage that  combines the  designer-orientated and  performance- orientated   modes    for    both    real-time   feedback   and optimal  solution  search  (Li  et  al., 2018).   Konis  et  al. developed  a  framework  and   workflow  that  enables de- signers  to examine building  form by passive  performance in the  early  design  stage (Athienitis and  O’Brien,  ۲۰۱۵).  Attia et al.   present a  simulation-based  decision   support  tool focusing  on informing  the  design  by building  performance simulation other than  evaluating design  alternatives (Attia et al., 2012a).   Lobaccaro at  al.  Proposed a  parametric- driven  workflow  that enables multi-objective optimization as  well  as  life  cycle  assessment by  several performance indicators (Lobaccaro et  al.,  ۲۰۱۸).  Youssef  et al.  devel- oped  a BPS method for  building  envelope with  integrated photovoltaic  using   the    architectural   theory  of   shape grammar (Youssef et al,  ۲۰۱۵, ۲۰۱۸).  Ochoa  et al.  devel- oped   a  tool  that  provides intelligent solutions in  fa¸cade design for architects to choose (Ochoa and Capeluto, 2009). Shi et al.  developed a performance-driven design  workflow on the  Rhinoceros and  grasshopper platform, which  is ex- pected to  be  more  familiar to  architects (Shi and  Yang,2013).

However,  BPS and  automatic optimization methods are found  to  remain in low usage  by architects. It is reported that 74% of architects do  not  use  BPS in their day-to-day practice (Soebarto et al., 2015),  the  part of BPS and  opti- mization  are   often  outsourced to  engineers  or  external experts other than   architects  themselves (Flager   et al., 2009;  Konis  et  al.,  ۲۰۱۶; Soebarto et  al.,  ۲۰۱۵).   It  is argued  that   architects  have    difficulty    in   the    use   of simulation tools   and  optimization methods,  and  present BPS cannot adequately address the  needs of architects and neither fully  accord with  the  general logic  flow of  archi- tectural design  (Østergard et al., 2016; Shi et al., 2016). Barriers, therefore,  exist  to  reduce or  hinder BPS to  be employed in architectural design.

The barriers may lie in three aspects of design workflow, presentation of simulation feedback and  optimization method. First,  regarding the  design  workflow, forward and inverse workflow  are  generally the  two  modes  of adopted with the  integration of BPS (Li et al., 2018). And the  inverse workflow  is increasingly proposed that  regards the  design process and design outcome as a performance-driven workflow  and  a performance-orientated output by genetic algorithms. Nevertheless, when design decisions are  mostly objectively evaluated and  dominated by quantifiable fac- tors, the   designers’ subjective  and   manual intervention design  are  inadequately addressed during  the  design  pro- cess.    Second,   as    for    the    design    optimization, the complexity of existing  engineering parametric or sensitivity analysis  increased the  difficulty  and  required skills for  ar- chitects, which  caused the  most  complaints by architects (Kanters  et al., 2014).  And representation and  interpreta- tion of simulation results are  often found difficult  to inform the  architects on  decision  making  due  to  complexity and excessive information (Attia et al., 2009; Donn et al., 2009; Weytjens et al., 2011).

Given the  above-existing incompatibilities of BPS in the design  process, this  study,  therefore, aims  to  propose a performance-informed method by architect-friendly inter- face   with  graphical performance  feedback  in  the   early- design  stage, targeting compatibility with  both  the  archi- tects’ conventional workflow  and  the  advantage of infor- mation from  BPS. In particular, this  study  focuses  on  the early-stage design  of exterior fixed shading  focusing  on the thermal and  visual comfort incorporating solar  irradiation, which has been a key concern of both  architectural design and  engineering optimization design  using BPS.

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