Mode choice behavior for access and egress connection to transit services

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۴٫۲۷۶ در سال ۲۰۲۰

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۲۶ در سال ۲۰۲۱

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Mode choice behavior for access and egress connection to transit services

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Mode choice behavior for access and egress connection to transit services


In  the aims to investigate the potential market of  Transportation Network Companies (TNCs)  to serve as  first/last mile connection for  transit services, this study investigated the influential factors that affect transit users’ choices of access and egress modes, includ- ing  TNC or  taxi, drive alone (park and ride), carpool (kiss and ride, carpool or  shuttle),Micromobility modes (bike-sharing, scooters), walking, and wheelchair. The  data for  this   study comes from a  transit on-board survey conducted in  Spring 2017 for  the Orlando  metropolitan area. Moreover, the Smart Location Database was also integrated to investi-  gate how land use characteristics may contribute to users’ choice for  access and egress  modes. Separate multinomial logit models were developed to investigate the mode choice  for access and egress links, respectively. Various personal, trip, and land use characteristics   showed significant impacts. Particularly, trips going to airports or universities/colleges had much higher probabilities of using TNC for access and egress purposes, while sports events   and medical visits were less  likely to be connected through TNC services. Visitors were also   less  likely to start their trips with TNCs. A longer distance between the origin and the tran-  sit  service showed positive impacts on  the use of TNC services. Higher household income also showed a positive influence on  TNC usage. In view of land use characteristics, higher   employment and household entropy, and high diversity at the origin reduced the probabil-        ity  of using motorized modes, including TNCs, for access purposes. On the destination side, high diversity seemed to encourage the use of  TNCs  and drive alone modes for  egress   purposes.

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  1. Introduction

۵۳               The  rapid growth of technology-based transportation  services has  drastically altered the nature of transportation net-

۵۴         works as well  as individuals’ travel behavior and lifestyle. Shared mobility, as one  of the technology-based services, provides

۵۵         users an opportunity to use  transportation services without the necessity to own a vehicle. Shared mobility companies allow

۵۶         travelers to  have short-term access to  various services, such as carsharing, ridesharing (including dynamic carpooling and

۵۷         ridesourcing), and bike-sharing services (Shaheen et al.  ۲۰۱۶). The  broad scope, flexibility, and high accessibility have

۵۸         brought tremendous growth for these services in the past few  years. In 2015, six years after the introduction of Uber,  as an

۵۹         example of ridesourcing services, it  served one  billion trips. Notably, Uber  ridership reached 5 billion trips one  year later

۶۰         (Uber 2017, Nasri et al. 2018).

۶۱               Given  the growing acceptance and use  of shared mobility services, understanding the potential impacts of these services

۶۲        on  other transportation modes becomes critical. Shared mobility services could be  a viable substitute for  private mobility

۶۳         considering their user-friendliness, convenience, as  well  as  cost-effectiveness features (Rahimi et al.  ۲۰۲۰, Younes et al.

۶۴         ۲۰۱۹, Azimi  et al. 2020). These services also  hold the potential as a possible solution to solve the first/last mile problem pro-

۶۵         viding door-to-door mobility for individuals (Pinto et al. 2018, Rahimi et al. 2019).

۶۶                 Accessibility is critical to transit usage (Kim et al. 2007). Moreover, walkability and safety of the environment are  signif-

۶۷          icant factors that impact users’ propensity toward walking (Tilahun et al. 2016, Kim et al. 2007, Flamm and Rivasplata 2014).

۶۸        On the other hand, using private vehicles or personal bicycles might not  be desirable due to the difficulty of finding a parking

۶۹          space, parking costs, and security concerns (Flamm and Rivasplata 2014). Given  its characteristics, shared mobility might be

۷۰         a viable and sustainable access/egress substitute for private vehicles (Yan et al., 2019, Jaller  et al. 2019, Alemi  and Rowdier,

۷۱         ۲۰۱۷). An integrated network could encourage the use  of public transportation, particularly in regions with low  or medium

۷۲         land use  density and poor transit  services (Lavieri. 2018). Exploring the potentials of shared mobility as first/last mile con-

۷۳         nection to  transit services will  provide useful insights into the development of strategies and policies to  improve transit

۷۴         accessibility and encourage sustainable mobility.

۷۵                Despite the remarkable potential, limited information is  available on  the effect of shared mobility services on  public

۷۶         transportation, mostly due to a lack  of data about these services and their potential users (Alemi et al. 2019). Although sev-

۷۷        eral  studies focused on access or egress mode choice behavior, they mainly focused on conventional modes, such as walking,

۷۸         biking, and private vehicles. Only  a  few  studies have examined the potential impacts of the emerging technologies and

۷۹         trends on  public transportation  (Jaller   et al.  ۲۰۱۹, Alemi  and Rowdier, 2017,  Curtis et al.  ۲۰۱۹). Most existing studies

۸۰         employed agent-based modeling or  simulation techniques to  investigate the impacts of the integrated system. Very  few

۸۱         incorporated a mode choice component that was  able  to  capture modal shifts. There is a knowledge gap  in user adoption

۸۲         behavior of shared mobility for first/last mile connection, and there are  still  a lot  more to  explore on  the potential market

۸۳        of integrating shared mobility with transit services.

۸۴               Given  the above discussions, this study intends to  evaluate the potential of integrating transit and shared mobility ser-

۸۵        vices  and investigate how these services may affect the transit market. This study contributes to the literature in two main

۸۶         aspects. First,  while most existing studies used a simulation approach and focused only  on the operational and performance

۸۷         aspect of the integration, this paper provides an empirical study in examining the user behavior and market characteristics of

۸۸          integrating shared mobility with transit services. A recent transit on-board survey was  used to investigate the characteristics

۸۹        of the existing market of shared mobility as  access or  egress mode for  transit. User  characteristics and trip attributes are

۹۰         explored in  terms of their impacts on  individuals’ mode choice for  access and egress purposes. Considering various types

۹۱        of contributing factors helps policymakers to  gain  better knowledge of the current market and potential motivations and

۹۲         limitations. Second, we  investigated the impacts of  the built environment on  access/egress mode choice, various land

۹۳         use-related data were integrated with the survey data. The  spatial patterns associated with the origins and destinations

۹۴        are  assessed, and the effect of these characteristics on the use  of shared mobility for first/last-mile connections are  explored.

۹۵        Built environment and land use  characteristics could have significant impact on mode choice behavior (Dieleman et al. 2002,

۹۶          Shaheen and Finson, 2003). Therefore, by considering the spatial pattern in the analysis, more effective and sustainable mea-

۹۷         sures can  be  implemented to  improve accessibility to  transit.

۹۸               This  study provides valuable information for  public transit agencies and private service providers to  formulate regula-

۹۹         tions and policies and develop business models that enable the creation of integrated, multimodal, and sustainable mobility

۱۰۰         systems embracing emerging technologies and advancements. The next section provides an overview of current studies that

۱۰۱         investigated the potential impacts of shared mobility on  public transit and the integration of these services with public

۱۰۲         transportation, followed by  the description of  the survey and land use  data. The  following sections present the applied

۱۰۳         methodology and model results. The  last  section discusses the main findings and potential topics for future research.

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